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Quantum Error Correction
 
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Daniel Gottesman, Perimeter Institute Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity Reunion Workshop http://simons.berkeley.edu/talks/daniel-gottesman-2015-05-08
Views: 950 Simons Institute
What is QUANTUM ERROR CORRECTION? What does QUANTUM ERROR CORRECTION mean?
 
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What is QUANTUM ERROR CORRECTION? What does QUANTUM ERROR CORRECTION mean? ERROR CORRECTION definition - ERROR CORRECTION meaning - ERROR CORRECTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Quantum error correction is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise. Quantum error correction is essential if one is to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that can deal not only with noise on stored quantum information, but also with faulty quantum gates, faulty quantum preparation, and faulty measurements. Classical error correction employs redundancy. The simplest way is to store the information multiple times, and—if these copies are later found to disagree—just take a majority vote; e.g. Suppose we copy a bit three times. Suppose further that a noisy error corrupts the three-bit state so that one bit is equal to zero but the other two are equal to one. If we assume that noisy errors are independent and occur with some probability p. It is most likely that the error is a single-bit error and the transmitted message is three ones. It is possible that a double-bit error occurs and the transmitted message is equal to three zeros, but this outcome is less likely than the above outcome. Copying quantum information is not possible due to the no-cloning theorem. This theorem seems to present an obstacle to formulating a theory of quantum error correction. But it is possible to spread the information of one qubit onto a highly entangled state of several (physical) qubits. Peter Shor first discovered this method of formulating a quantum error correcting code by storing the information of one qubit onto a highly entangled state of nine qubits. A quantum error correcting code protects quantum information against errors of a limited form. Classical error correcting codes use a syndrome measurement to diagnose which error corrupts an encoded state. We then reverse an error by applying a corrective operation based on the syndrome. Quantum error correction also employs syndrome measurements. We perform a multi-qubit measurement that does not disturb the quantum information in the encoded state but retrieves information about the error. A syndrome measurement can determine whether a qubit has been corrupted, and if so, which one. What is more, the outcome of this operation (the syndrome) tells us not only which physical qubit was affected, but also, in which of several possible ways it was affected. The latter is counter-intuitive at first sight: Since noise is arbitrary, how can the effect of noise be one of only few distinct possibilities? In most codes, the effect is either a bit flip, or a sign (of the phase) flip, or both (corresponding to the Pauli matrices X, Z, and Y). The reason is that the measurement of the syndrome has the projective effect of a quantum measurement. So even if the error due to the noise was arbitrary, it can be expressed as a superposition of basis operations—the error basis (which is here given by the Pauli matrices and the identity). The syndrome measurement "forces" the qubit to "decide" for a certain specific "Pauli error" to "have happened", and the syndrome tells us which, so that we can let the same Pauli operator act again on the corrupted qubit to revert the effect of the error. The syndrome measurement tells us as much as possible about the error that has happened, but nothing at all about the value that is stored in the logical qubit—as otherwise the measurement would destroy any quantum superposition of this logical qubit with other qubits in the quantum computer.
Views: 959 The Audiopedia
David Poulin - Error Correction & Fault Tolerance
 
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David Poulin of Universite de Sherbrooke, an alumnus of IQC, speaks about his work in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. He discusses his theoretical approaches to find ways to manipulate quantum information for long periods of time in the most efficient manner. Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/ Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC
Daniel Gottesman: The Definition(s) of Fault Tolerance
 
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A talk by Daniel Gottesman at the 4th International Conference on Quantum Error Correction, hosted September 11-15, 2017 by Georgia Tech and the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science at the University of Maryland.
Views: 144 QuICS
WII? (2a) Information Theory, Claude Shannon, Entropy, Redundancy, Data Compression & Bits
 
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What is Information? - Part 2a - Introduction to Information Theory: Script: http://crackingthenutshell.org/what-is-information-part-2a-information-theory ** Please support my channel by becoming a patron: http://www.patreon.com/crackingthenutshell ** Or... how about a Paypal Donation? http://crackingthenutshell.org/donate Thanks so much for your support! :-) - Claude Shannon - Bell Labs - Father of Information Theory - A Mathematical Theory of Communication - 1948 - Book, co-written with Warren Weaver - How to transmit information efficiently, reliably & securely through a given channel (e.g. tackling evesdropping) - Applications. Lossless data compression (ZIP files). Lossy data compression (MP3, JPG). Cryptography, thermal physics, quantum computing, neurobiology - Shannon's definition not related to meaningfulness, value or other qualitative properties - theory tackles practical issues - Shannon's information, a purely quantitative measure of communication exchanges - Shannon's Entropy. John von Neumann. Shannon's information, information entropy - avoid confusion with with thermodynamical entropy - Shannon's Entropy formula. H as the negative of a certain sum involving probabilities - Examples: fair coin & two-headed coin - Information gain = uncertainty reduction in the receiver's knowledge - Shannon's entropy as missing information, lack of information - Estimating the entropy per character of the written English language - Constraints such as "I before E except after C" reduce H per symbol - Taking into account redundancy & contextuality - Redundancy, predictability, entropy per character, compressibility - What is data compression? - Extracting redundancy - Source Coding Theorem. Entropy as a lower limit for lossless data compression. - ASCII codes - Example using Huffman code. David Huffman. Variable length coding - Other compression techniques: arithmetic coding - Quality vs Quantity of information - John Tukey's bit vs Shannon's bit - Difference between storage bit & information content. Encoded data vs Shannon's information - Coming in the next video: error correction and detection, Noisy-channel coding theorem, error-correcting codes, Hamming codes, James Gates discovery, the laws of physics, How does Nature store Information, biology, DNA, cosmological & biological evolution
Views: 55153 Cracking The Nutshell
The Fragility of Adversary Definitions in Cryptographic Protocols
 
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Dr. Virgil Gligor, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon and Cylab, presents "On the Fragiliity of Adversary Definitions in Cryptographic Protocols" on November 6, 2008. Note: Original video was 320x240.
Views: 324 Rutgers University
Continuous variable entropic uncertainty - Fabian Furrer
 
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Fabian Furrer of Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hannover and the University of Tokyo presented: Continuous variable entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory on behalf of his co-authors Mario Berta (Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich), Matthias Christandl (Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich), Volkher Schultz (Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich) and Marco Tomamichel (Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore) at the 2013 QCrypt Conference in August. http://2013.qcrypt.net Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/ Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC
Helger Lipmaa "Succinct Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge Arguments from Span Programs and ..."
 
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Helger Lipmaa (Tartu Universitāte) referāts "Succinct Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge Arguments from Span Programs and Linear Error-Correcting Codes", Recently, Gennaro, Gentry, Parno and Raykova [GGPR12] proposed an ecient non-interactive zero knowledge argument for Circuit-SAT, based on non-standard notions like conscientious and quadratic span programs. We propose a new non-interactive zero knowledge argument, based on a simple combination of standard span programs (that verify the correctness of every individual gate) and high-distance linear error-correcting codes (that check the consistency of wire assignments). We simplify all steps of the argument. As one of the corollaries, we design an (optimal) wire checker, based on systematic Reed-Solomon codes, of size 8n and degree 4n, while the wire checker from [GGPR12] has size 24n and degree 76n, where n is the circuit size. Importantly, the new argument has constant verier's computation. (publikācija: http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/121) Kvantu un kritpo diena 2013 (Quantum and Crypto Day 2013) Latvijas Universitātes Datorikas fakultātē notika 2013. gada 25. aprīlī. Plašāka informācija: http://www.df.lu.lv/zinas/t/20343/
What is INFORMATION THEORY? What does INFORMATION THEORY mean? INFORMATION THEORY meaning
 
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What is INFORMATION THEORY? What does INFORMATION THEORY mean? INFORMATION THEORY meaning. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information. It was originally proposed by Claude E. Shannon in 1948 to find fundamental limits on signal processing and communication operations such as data compression, in a landmark paper entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". Now this theory has found applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography, neurobiology, the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, linguistics, plagiarism detection, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection. A key measure in information theory is "entropy". Entropy quantifies the amount of uncertainty involved in the value of a random variable or the outcome of a random process. For example, identifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (with two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (with six equally likely outcomes). Some other important measures in information theory are mutual information, channel capacity, error exponents, and relative entropy. Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPEGs), and channel coding (e.g. for Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)). The field is at the intersection of mathematics, statistics, computer science, physics, neurobiology, and electrical engineering. Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. Important sub-fields of information theory include source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, information-theoretic security, and measures of information. Information theory studies the transmission, processing, utilization, and extraction of information. Abstractly, information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty. In the case of communication of information over a noisy channel, this abstract concept was made concrete in 1948 by Claude Shannon in his paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", in which "information" is thought of as a set of possible messages, where the goal is to send these messages over a noisy channel, and then to have the receiver reconstruct the message with low probability of error, in spite of the channel noise. Shannon's main result, the noisy-channel coding theorem showed that, in the limit of many channel uses, the rate of information that is asymptotically achievable is equal to the channel capacity, a quantity dependent merely on the statistics of the channel over which the messages are sent. Information theory is closely associated with a collection of pure and applied disciplines that have been investigated and reduced to engineering practice under a variety of rubrics throughout the world over the past half century or more: adaptive systems, anticipatory systems, artificial intelligence, complex systems, complexity science, cybernetics, informatics, machine learning, along with systems sciences of many descriptions. Information theory is a broad and deep mathematical theory, with equally broad and deep applications, amongst which is the vital field of coding theory. Coding theory is concerned with finding explicit methods, called codes, for increasing the efficiency and reducing the error rate of data communication over noisy channels to near the Channel capacity. These codes can be roughly subdivided into data compression (source coding) and error-correction (channel coding) techniques. In the latter case, it took many years to find the methods Shannon's work proved were possible. A third class of information theory codes are cryptographic algorithms (both codes and ciphers). Concepts, methods and results from coding theory and information theory are widely used in cryptography and cryptanalysis. See the article ban (unit) for a historical application. Information theory is also used in information retrieval, intelligence gathering, gambling, statistics, and even in musical composition.
Views: 2772 The Audiopedia
Valentin Suder - Sparse Permutations with Low Differential Uniformity
 
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Sparse Permutations with Low Differential Uniformity
Views: 83 Institut Fourier
Science of Information | The Great Courses
 
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Start your FREE Trial of The Great Courses Plus and watch the course here: https://www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/special-offer?utm_source=US_OnlineVideo&utm_medium=SocialMediaEditorialYouTube&utm_campaign=145596 The science of information is the most influential, yet perhaps least appreciated field in science today. Never before in history have we been able to acquire, record, communicate, and use information in so many different forms. Never before have we had access to such vast quantities of data of every kind. This revolution goes far beyond the limitless content that fills our lives, because information also underlies our understanding of ourselves, the natural world, and the universe. It is the key that unites fields as different as linguistics, cryptography, neuroscience, genetics, economics, and quantum mechanics. And the fact that information bears no necessary connection to meaning makes it a profound puzzle that people with a passion for philosophy have pondered for centuries. Little wonder that an entirely new science has arisen that is devoted to deepening our understanding of information and our ability to use it. Called information theory, this field has been responsible for path-breaking insights such as the following: What is information? In 1948, mathematician Claude Shannon boldly captured the essence of information with a definition that doesn’t invoke abstract concepts such as meaning or knowledge. In Shannon’s revolutionary view, information is simply the ability to distinguish reliably among possible alternatives. The bit: Atomic theory has the atom. Information theory has the bit: the basic unit of information. Proposed by Shannon’s colleague at Bell Labs, John Tukey, bit stands for “binary digit”—0 or 1 in binary notation, which can be implemented with a simple on/off switch. Everything from books to black holes can be measured in bits. Redundancy: Redundancy in information may seem like mere inefficiency, but it is a crucial feature of information of all types, including languages and DNA, since it provides built-in error correction for mistakes and noise. Redundancy is also the key to breaking secret codes. Building on these and other fundamental principles, information theory spawned the digital revolution of today, just as the discoveries of Galileo and Newton laid the foundation for the scientific revolution four centuries ago. Technologies for computing, telecommunication, and encryption are now common, and it’s easy to forget that these powerful technologies and techniques had their own Galileos and Newtons. The Science of Information: From Language to Black Holes covers the exciting concepts, history, and applications of information theory in 24 challenging and eye-opening half-hour lectures taught by Professor Benjamin Schumacher of Kenyon College. A prominent physicist and award-winning educator at one of the nation’s top liberal arts colleges, Professor Schumacher is also a pioneer in the field of quantum information, which is the latest exciting development in this dynamic scientific field. Start your FREE Trial of The Great Courses Plus and watch the course here: https://www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/special-offer?utm_source=US_OnlineVideo&utm_medium=SocialMediaEditorialYouTube&utm_campaign=145596 Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=TheGreatCourses
Daniel Lidar: "Quantum Information Processing: Are We There Yet?"
 
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Daniel Lidar visited the Quantum AI Lab at Google LA to give a talk: "Quantum Information Processing: Are We There Yet?" This talk took place on January 22, 2015. Abstract: Quantum information processing holds great promise, yet large-scale, general purpose quantum computers capable of solving hard problems are not yet available despite 20+ years of immense effort. In this talk I will describe some of this promise and effort, as well as the obstacles and ideas for overcoming them using error correction techniques. I will focus on a special purpose quantum information processor called a quantum annealer, designed to speed up the solution to tough optimization problems. In October 2011 USC and Lockheed-Martin jointly founded a quantum computing center housing a commercial quantum annealer built by the Canadian company D-Wave Systems. A similar device is operated by NASA and Google. These processors use superconducting flux qubits to minimize the energy of classical spin-glass models with as many spins as qubits, an NP-hard problem with numerous applications. There has been much controversy surrounding the D-Wave processors, questioning whether they offer any advantage over classical computing. I will survey the recent work we have done to benchmark the processors against highly optimized classical algorithms, to test for quantum effects, and to perform error correction. Bio: Daniel Lidar has worked in quantum computing for nearly 20 years. He is a professor of electrical engineering, chemistry, and physics at USC, and hold a Ph.D. in physics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His work revolves around various aspects of quantum information science, including quantum algorithms, quantum control, the theory of open quantum systems, and theoretical as well as experimental adiabatic quantum computation. He is a Fellow of the AAAS, APS, and IEEE. Lidar is the Director of the USC Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, and is the Scientific Director of the USC-Lockheed Martin Center for Quantum Computing. Two of his former graduate students are now research scientists at Google’s quantum artificial intelligence lab.
Views: 13654 GoogleTechTalks
Tech Talk:  John Martinis,  "Design of a Superconducting Quantum Computer"
 
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John Martinis visited Google LA to give a tech talk: "Design of a Superconducting Quantum Computer." This talk took place on October 15, 2013. Bio: John M. Martinis attended the University of California at Berkeley from 1976 to 1987, where he received two degrees in Physics: B.S. (1980) and Ph.D. (1987). His thesis research focused on macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson Junctions. After completing a post-doctoral position at the Commisiariat Energie Atomic in Saclay, France, he joined the Electromagnetic Technology division at NIST in Boulder. At NIST he was involved in understanding the basic physics of the Coulomb Blockade, and worked to use this phenomenon to make a new fundamental electrical standard based on counting electrons. While at NIST he also invented microcalorimeters based on superconducting sensors for x-ray microanalysis and astrophysics. In June of 2004 he moved to the University of California, Santa Barbara where he currently holds the Worster Chair. At UCSB, he has continued work on quantum computation. Along with Andrew Cleland, he was awarded in 2010 the AAAS science breakthrough of the year for work showing quantum behavior of a mechanical oscillator. Abstract: Superconducting quantum computing is now at an important crossroad, where "proof of concept" experiments involving small numbers of qubits can be transitioned to more challenging and systematic approaches that could actually lead to building a quantum computer. Our optimism is based on two recent developments: a new hardware architecture for error detection based on "surface codes" [1], and recent improvements in the coherence of superconducting qubits [2]. I will explain how the surface code is a major advance for quantum computing, as it allows one to use qubits with realistic fidelities, and has a connection architecture that is compatible with integrated circuit technology. Additionally, the surface code allows quantum error detection to be understood using simple principles. I will also discuss how the hardware characteristics of superconducting qubits map into this architecture, and review recent results that suggest gate errors can be reduced to below that needed for the error detection threshold. References [1] Austin G. Fowler, Matteo Mariantoni, John M. Martinis and Andrew N. Cleland, PRA 86, 032324 (2012). [2] R. Barends, J. Kelly, A. Megrant, D. Sank, E. Jeffrey, Y. Chen, Y. Yin, B. Chiaro, J. Mutus, C. Neill, P. O'Malley, P. Roushan, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland and John M. Martinis, arXiv:1304:2322.
Views: 60851 GoogleTechTalks
Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists
 
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This talk discards hand-wavy pop-science metaphors and answers a simple question: from a computer science perspective, how can a quantum computer outperform a classical computer? Attendees will learn the following: - Representing computation with basic linear algebra (matrices and vectors) - The computational workings of qbits, superposition, and quantum logic gates - Solving the Deutsch oracle problem: the simplest problem where a quantum computer outperforms classical methods - Bonus topics: quantum entanglement and teleportation The talk concludes with a live demonstration of quantum entanglement on a real-world quantum computer, and a demo of the Deutsch oracle problem implemented in Q# with the Microsoft Quantum Development Kit. This talk assumes no prerequisite knowledge, although comfort with basic linear algebra (matrices, vectors, matrix multiplication) will ease understanding. See more at https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/video/quantum-computing-computer-scientists/
Views: 71568 Microsoft Research
John Preskill - Introduction to Quantum Information (Part 1) - CSSQI 2012
 
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John Preskill, Richard P. Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology, gave a lecture about Introduction to Quantum Information. The lecture is the first of two parts, and was filmed at the Canadian Summer School on Quantum Information, held at the University of Waterloo in June of 2012. Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/ Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC
IOTA tutorial 9: Address and checksum
 
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If you like this video and want to support me, go this page for my donation crypto addresses: https://www.youtube.com/c/mobilefish/about This is part 9 of the IOTA tutorial. In this video series different topics will be explained which will help you to understand IOTA. It is recommended to watch each video sequentially as I may refer to certain IOTA topics explained earlier. The procedure to generate IOTA addresses is as follows: IOTA addresses are deterministically generated starting with the seed (81 trytes). Seed (trytes): C9RQF ... QIAWT Convert the seed (81 trytes) to trits (= 81 x 3 = 243 trits) Seed (trits): 0,1,0,0,0,0 ... -1,-1,0,-1,1,-1 Every address has a corresponding key index number. A key index number is an integer starting from 0. Address 0 has key index number 0, address 1 has key index number 1, etc. They key index number always starts with integer 0, and is simply incremented in order to get the next address. The largest key index number allowed is 9007199254740991. This largest key index number is the same as 2^53 - 1, which is the same as the Javascript constant: Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER An IOTA seed can generate in total 9007199254740992 addresses. The decimal key index number must be converted to trits. For example the key index number 1 converted to trits looks like: 1,0,0 Next create a subseed by adding the key index number and seed together. subseed = seed + key index number IOTA provides 3 security levels: 1, 2 or 3. A security level determines the number of rounds for hashing, which means that a single seed can have 3 different accounts. A different security level with the same index number, means that you will get a different address. Security level 1, Key size (trits): 6561 x 1 Remark: Used for low security (for very high efficiency). Best for tiny IoT devices that only transact/store small amounts of value. Security level 2, Key size (trits): 6561 x 2 Remark: Used for standard security (for medium performance). Best for regular people's wallets and devices that store higher amounts of value. Security level 3, Key size (trits): 6561 x 4 Remark: Used for full blown quantum proof security that conforms to National Security Agency’s (NSA) recommendations for sensitive material. Good for big value transactions and paranoids. Client libraries, such as iota.lib.js makes it possible to choose another security level. See: https://www.mobilefish.com/services/cryptocurrency/iota_wallet.html By default the IOTA light wallet uses security level 2 and you can not change its security level. If you created an address using security level 1 or 3 this address will not appear in the IOTA light wallet using the same seed. In the next slide a simplistic explanation is given how the subseed is hashed multiple times using the Keccak-384 hash algorithm. The hashing is done in a wrapper class called Kerl. The seed and subseed can differ between the first 1 tryte up to and including 12 trytes. If someone else has exactly the last 69 (= 81 - 12) trytes up to and including 81 trytes of your seed they can see the balance of one or more of your addresses. The probability that someone else happens to have the same last 69 trytes of your seed is very small. Here is the proof: IOTA seed with only 69 trytes has 27^69 = 5.80 x 10^98 possible combinations. For comparison: A Bitcoin private key with 256 bits has 2^256 = 1.15 x 10^77 possible combinations. This means, even if you have an IOTA seed with only 69 trytes it has more possible combinations than a Bitcoin private key. A checksum is an additional 9 trytes added to an address (81 trytes) which can be used to validate the integrity and validity of the address. An address with checksum is 90 trytes long, 81 trytes for the address itself and 9 trytes for the checksum. The procedure to calculate an address checksum is as follows: Start with an IOTA address (81 trytes).Address (trytes): FSAFM ... NVDZC Convert the address (81 trytes) to trits (= 81 x 3 = 243 trits) Address (trits): 1,0,-1,1,0,-1 ... -1,0,0,0,1,0 The address is hashed using the Keccak-384 hash algorithm. Convert the address checksum (243 trits) to trytes (81 trytes): ...PJFNYWVUGKPRTRV Get the last 9 trytes: VUGKPRTRV Append the last 9 trytes to the original address: FSAFM ... NVDZCVUGKPRTRV The address including checksum has a length of 81 + 9 = 90 trytes. The IOTA light wallet: Always creates addresses including the checksum. The addresses are always 90 trytes long. Always requires receive addresses, with valid checksums when making a transaction. The receive addresses must be 90 trytes long. Check out all my other IOTA tutorial videos: https://goo.gl/aNHf1y Subscribe to my YouTube channel: https://goo.gl/61NFzK The presentation used in this video tutorial can be found at: https://www.mobilefish.com/developer/iota/iota_quickguide_tutorial.html #mobilefish #howto #iota
Views: 2663 Mobilefish.com
Jan 12 Fernando Pastawski."Holographic quantum error- correcting codes.." (Part 2)
 
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QIP 2016, Banff, 10-16 January 2016 Date: 12 Jan 2016 Title: "Holographic quantum error- correcting codes: toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence" Authors: Fernando Pastawski, Beni Yoshida, Daniel Harlow and John Preskill. We propose a novel tensor network construction of quantum error-correcting codes inspired by properties of the celebrated holographic correspondence. Our building block is a special family of tensors with multiple indices of equal dimension and admitting a unitary interpretation for any balanced index bipartition. By properly identifying uncontracted indices as input or output, the entire tensor network can be interpreted as an isometry, an encoding map for a quantum error-correcting code. The resulting isometry captures key features of the holographic (bulk/boundary) correspondence. In particular, we provide a systematic procedure for representing logical operators on specific subsets of physical qubits which we call the greedy reconstruction algorithm. This procedure, mimics the Rindler-wedge reconstruction present in holography and explicitly realizes the connection with quantum codes proposed by Almheiri et al.. Furthermore, by interpreting the graph structure of a tensor network as a discrete geometry, we make contact with a holographic statement due to Ryu and Takayanagi relating entanglement with minimal surfaces. Namely, under simple graph theoretic assumptions, we prove a max-flow/min-cut statement by which the entanglement of a sub-region is equal to the minimal number of cuts needed to disconnect the region from its complement. The proposed framework provides a flexible way to design novel quantum codes, allows explicitly realizing tailored entanglement structures. http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.06237
Views: 92 Iqst Ucalgary
Shoucheng Zhang: "Quantum Computing, AI and Blockchain: The Future of IT" | Talks at Google
 
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Prof. Shoucheng Zhang discusses three pillars of information technology: quantum computing, AI and blockchain. He presents the fundamentals of crypto-economic science, and answers questions such as: What is the intrinsic value of a medium of exchange? What is the value of consensus and how does it emerge? How can math be used to create distributed self-organizing consensus networks to create a data-marketplace for AI and machine learning? Prof. Zhang is the JG Jackson and CJ Wood professor of physics at Stanford University. He is a member of the US National Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He discovered a new state of matter called topological insulator in which electrons can conduct along the edge without dissipation, enabling a new generation of electronic devices with much lower power consumption. For this ground breaking work he received numerous international awards, including the Buckley Prize, the Dirac Medal and Prize, the Europhysics Prize, the Physics Frontiers Prize and the Benjamin Franklin Medal. He is also the founding chairman of DHVC venture capital fund, which invests in AI, blockchain, mobile internet, big data, AR/VR, genomics and precision medicine, sharing economy and robotics.
Views: 14301 Talks at Google
Stephen Hawking at the Institute for Quantum Computing: The Boomerang of Time
 
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In June 2010, Stephen Hawking visited the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo to tour the laboratories and learn more about quantum information science. The visit reunited Hawking with his former doctoral student, IQC Executive Director Raymond Laflamme. In the 1980s, when Hawking was writing his best-seller "A Brief History of Time," Laflamme's job was to mathematically prove his mentor's theory about what happens to time in a contracting universe. Trouble was, the math just didn't add up. Laflamme instead proved that Hawking's theory — that time reverses direction — could not be true. Hawking conceded his student's calculations were sound, and personalized Laflamme's copy of "A Brief History of Time" by thanking Laflamme for proving that "the arrow of time is not a boomerang." During Hawking's visit to IQC, Laflamme returned the favour by presenting Hawking with a wooden boomerang — a symbol that the "arrow of time" can sometimes bring colleagues and friends full-circle. The boomerang, which Hawking took back to the UK, was is engraved with an optimistic message for the future: "Come back soon!" Learn more at: www.iqc.ca Find IQC on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Institute-for-Quantum-Compu... Follow IQC on Twitter: http://twitter.com/quantumiqc
Lecture 1 | Quantum Information (PSI 13/14, Review) - Andrew Childs (Maryland) 2014.2.18 11:30
 
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Quantum Information (PSI 13/14, Review, PHYS 635) - Andrew Childs (University of Maryland) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOSAZy4zsHlO2Az61tnb_gQ Lecture 1 Qubits, unitary operations and quantum protocols (superdense coding and teleportation) Lecture 2 Circuits, reversible computation, and universality Lecture 3 Universality continued, DiVincenzo criteria, nonlinear optics, survey of implementations Lecture 4 The Church-Turing thesis, efficiency, strong Church-Turing thesis, complexity classes, black boxes Lecture 5 Introductory quantum algorithms: Deutsch-Jozsa and Simon's problem Lecture 6 The quantum Fourier transform and phase estimation Lecture 7 Factoring, RSA, Shor's algorithm and order finding Lecture 8 Searching algorithms Lecture 9 Open quantum systems Lecture 10 Distance measures and entropy Lecture 11 Compression Lecture 12 Error correction Lecture 13 Stabilizer codes and fault tolerance Lecture 14 Quantum key distribution 《Perimeter Scholars International (PSI) 2013-2014》 Full Programme: ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOHCtm9n3woen7IPkYcw9So Mathematics Review / Front End Courses: ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOVlHBkf2sicIwt-OVLd9sa Core Topics (1)-(6): Foundational subjects. (Three three-week sessions, each with two courses running in parallel.) 1. Relativity (PHYS 604) - Neil Turok (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbMoUXv4-vHVTekVsfqjvUS3 2. Quantum Theory (PHYS 605) - Joseph Emerson (Waterloo) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbNhfcvz10uBUhmrNghZbOdw 3. Statistical Mechanics (PHYS 602) - Anton Burkov (Waterloo) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbNzBPtYEQiOdjZjvA29_Orm 4. Quantum Field Theory I (PHYS 601) - Freddy Cachazo (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbNQzeqBviLxc5yx7ZhIDpcd 5. Quantum Field Theory II (PHYS 603) - Francois David (CEA, Saclay) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbN12HNCCDneCDMfRJzhyzW9 6. Condensed Matter I (PHYS 611) - Roger Melko (Waterloo), Xiao-Gang Wen (Perimeter), Anushya Chandran (Boston) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbPqgdbJ3jeI31gTGd77Mq51 Reviews (7)-(15): Subdisciplinary subjects. (Three three-week sessions, each with three courses running in parallel. Students are required to take at least four review courses.) 7. Standard Model (PHYS 622) - Paul Langacker (IAS, Princeton) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbMwftn7CtcFirLgrmW_SvqU 8. Gravitational Physics (PHYS 636) - Ruth Gregory (Durham) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbPOKRqGyUiVDFb5Mkj_GGPP 9. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (PHYS 639) - Lucien Hardy & Matthew Pusey (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbPZ_janKlNOKaqrbTNHhEZu 10. Condensed Matter II (PHYS 637) - Alioscia Hamma (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbPfy98V0PKLMGbq36lg7sbM 11. String Theory (PHYS 623) - Davide Gaiotto (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbNTN201q7pUNuikPVsow5DA 12. Cosmology (PHYS 621) - Latham Boyle (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbMrbnwdZ9XgIX0j0w4G-cM7 13. Beyond the Standard Model (PHYS 777) - Robert Mann (Waterloo) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbPYhtU_c_mO3qOKpHrRxiwi 14. Quantum Gravity (PHYS 638) - Bianca Dittrich (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOmi3YyleA8GrVaKQ1zP9uV 15. Quantum Information (PHYS 635) - Andrew Childs (Maryland) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOSAZy4zsHlO2Az61tnb_gQ Explorations (16)-(20): Short, in-depth courses on specialized fields which are currently "hot". (Three three-week sessions, each with three courses running in parallel. Students are required to take at least two exploration courses.) 16. Explorations in Quantum Information (PHYS 641) - David Cory (Waterloo) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOmQnEjG7z_u9stsdVbxHho 17. Explorations in Condensed Matter - Guifre Vidal (Perimeter) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbOh-CbTK8lBfYMtetPmA5-c 18. Explorations in String Theory (PHYS 647) - Andrei Starinets (Oxford) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbMp6tZVSw7yCcpp-VDnRV7M 19. Explorations in Particle Theory (PHYS 646) - Brian Shuve (Harvey Mudd College) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbN-oyHDtEc9peTmmjGh3fx2 20. Explorations in Cosmology (PHYS 649) - Matthew Johnson (York) ▶ https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFMKfDJ8QzbO92JCGRDPCZm5wbJ4rbgiw
Perfect secrecy | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
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Claude Shannon's idea of perfect secrecy: no amount of computational power can help improve your ability to break the one-time pad Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/random-vs-pseudorandom-number-generators?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/case-study-ww2-encryption-machines?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 131538 Khan Academy Labs
Die Riemannsche Vermutung (Weihnachtsvorlesung 2016)
 
01:44:48
Das wohl wichtigste ungelöste Problem der Mathematik. * Weihnachtsvorlesung 2017 (mehrere Teile) ab hier: http://weitz.de/y/TOcQ_jIYQwo?list=PLb0zKSynM2PAuxxtMK1bxYPV_bUoPtpTB * "Alternative" Weihnachtsvorlesung 2017: http://weitz.de/y/Vv3Rve3yXBY?list=PLb0zKSynM2PAuxxtMK1bxYPV_bUoPtpTB * Weihnachtsvorlesung 2015: http://weitz.de/y/q2iZDtotiM0?list=PLb0zKSynM2PAuxxtMK1bxYPV_bUoPtpTB * Weihnachtsvorlesung 2014 (mehrere Teile) ab hier: http://weitz.de/y/40Mt9WdSNEk?list=PLb0zKSynM2PAuxxtMK1bxYPV_bUoPtpTB * Weihnachtsvorlesung 2013 (mehrere Teile) ab hier: http://weitz.de/y/2w1_kWn-F0s?list=PLb0zKSynM2PAuxxtMK1bxYPV_bUoPtpTB * "Sommervorlesung" 2014: http://weitz.de/y/BNx0ObN6fVc?list=PLb0zKSynM2PAuxxtMK1bxYPV_bUoPtpTB Da dieser Vortrag, der ursprünglich vor nur etwa fünfzig Zuhörern gehalten wurde, inzwischen zu meiner Überraschung auf YouTube äußerst populär geworden ist, muss ich doch mal etwas klarstellen: Es handelt sich hier nicht um eine Vorlesung für Mathematiker, sondern um einen einmaligen "populärwissenschaftlichen" Vortrag, der sich an ein bunt gemischtes Publikum richtete; darunter auch viele "Laien", die nur Schulwissen der Mathematik mitbrachten (und das wahrscheinlich auch schon vergessen hatten). Es ging darum, Zuhörern, die sonst nichts mit Mathe am Hut haben, anhand eines Beispiels eine Vorstellung davon zu vermitteln, welche Fragen Mathematiker eigentlich beschäftigen. Allgemeine Anmerkungen: http://weitz.de/youtube.html
Views: 425664 Weitz / HAW Hamburg
What is Quantum Computing? - EEs Talk Tech Electrical Engineering Podcast #15
 
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What is a quantum computer and what is quantum computing? Click to subscribe! ► http://bit.ly/Scopes_Sub ◄ Full agenda below! https://eestalktech.com/what-is-quantum-computing Twitter: @Keysight_Daniel https://twitter.com/Keysight_Daniel Learn more about using oscilloscopes: http://oscilloscopelearningcenter.com Check out the EEs Talk Tech electrical engineering podcast: https://eestalktech.com The 2-Minute Guru Season 2 playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzHyxysSubUlqBguuVZCeNn47GSK8rcso More about Keysight oscilloscopes: http://bit.ly/SCOPES Check out our blog: http://bit.ly/ScopesBlog Agenda: 0:45 Intro Lee Barford's job is to help to guide Keysight into the quantum computing industry and enable quantum computing experts 2:00 Why is quantum computing/a quantum computer important? Clock rates for digital processors stopped getting faster around 2006 because of excessive heat The processor manufacturers realized they needed more processor parallelism Graphics processor units (GPUs) can be used as vector and matrix computational machines Bitcoin utilizes this method. 6:00 What does the development of quantum computing and quantum computers mean for the future? Gates being made with feature size of the digital transistor that have an effective gate length of down to 7 nm Now we're pushing below 5 nm, and there are not many unit cells of silicon left in the layer. (one unit cell of silicon is 0.5 nanometer) The Heisenberg uncertainty principle comes into play at this point because there are few enough atoms that quantum mechanical effects will disturb electronics. These quantum mechanical effects include a superposition of states (Schrodinger's cat) and low error tolerance. 10:20 When will Moore's law fail?  Quantum computing and quantum computers are one way of moving the computing industry past this barrier by taking advantage of quantum effects - engineering with them - to build a quantum computer that will do certain tasks much faster than today's computers. 15:20 Questions for future episodes: What sort of technology does it take to make a quantum computer? Where are current experiments probing? Why are people funding quantum computing research and the building of quantum computers? What problems are quantum computing (and quantum computers) working to solve? 17:30 Using quantum effects Quantum computers probably won't be used in consumer devices because it currently requires a very low temperature and/or a vacuum. 18:00 The quantum computer's fundamental storage unit is a qubit (quantum bit). It can be in states 1 or 0 with some finite probability 19:00 You can set up a quantum register to store multiple potential qubits, and when read out, have an identical probability to be either of these numbers. A quantum register can store multiple states at once, but only one register value can be read out of the quantum register. 21:00 How do you get the desired value out of a quantum register? You do as much of the computation ahead of time and then read the quantum computers quantum register. It works because the answer is either such a high probability to be correct that you don't need to check it, or it is very easy to double check if the answer is correct. 21:00 How do you get the desired value out of a quantum register? You do as much of the computation ahead of time and then read the quantum computers quantum register. 22:30 Quantum computers are good at factoring very large numbers (breaking RSA in cryptography) #oscilloscope #oscilloscopes #electronics #electricalengineering
Views: 1501 Keysight Labs
Redundancy, Fault Tolerance, and High Availability - CompTIA Security+ SY0-501 - 3.8
 
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Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0501 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/501cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - Now that you’ve built your cloud-based application instances, how to keep them running with 100% availability? In this video, you’ll learn about redundant systems, building fault tolerant architectures, and the advantages of high availability. - - - - - Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 8698 Professor Messer
a16z with Andreessen HorowitzPodcast: Quantum Computing, Now and Next
 
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Moore's Law -- putting more and more transistors on a chip -- accelerated the computing industry by so many orders of magnitude, it has (and continues to) achieve seemingly impossible feats. However, we're now resorting to brute-force hacks to keep pushing it beyond its limits and are getting closer to the point of diminishing returns (especially given costly manufacturing infrastructure). Yet this very dynamic is leading to "a Cambrian explosion" in computing capabilities… just look at what's happening today with GPUs, FPGAs, and neuromorphic chips. Through such continuing performance improvements and parallelization, classic computing continues to reshape the modern world. But we're so focused on making our computers do more that we're not talking enough about what classic computers can't do -- and that's to compute things the way nature does, which operates in quantum mechanics. So our smart machines are really quite dumb, argues Rigetti Computing founder and CEO Chad Rigetti; they're limited to human-made binary code vs. the natural reality of continuous variables. This in turn limits our ability to work on problems that classic computers can't solve, such as key applications in computational chemistry or large-scale optimization for machine learning and artificial intelligence. Which is where quantum computing comes in. SUBCRIBE - https://goo.gl/aiECKP The a16z Podcast discusses tech and culture trends, news, and the future -- especially as ‘software eats the world’. It features industry experts, business leaders, and other interesting thinkers and voices from around the world. This podcast is produced by Andreessen Horowitz (aka “a16z”), a Silicon Valley-based venture capital firm. Multiple episodes are released every week; visit a16z.com for more details.
What does qudit mean?
 
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What does qudit mean? A spoken definition of qudit. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/qudit Text to Speech powered by TTS-API.COM
Amplifying Privacy in Privacy Amplification
 
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Amplifying Privacy in Privacy Amplification by Leonid Reyzin, Yevgeniy Dodis, Divesh Aggarwal, Eric Miles, Zahra Jafargholi. Talk at Crypto 2014.
Views: 292 TheIACR
A 0ne-pass Key Distribution Protocol Based on the Hamming Code
 
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Encryption key distribution is a fundamental cryptographic research area. In this work, we present a one-pass key distribution protocol utilizing the Hamming Error Detection and Correction Code. The shared secret is a random string of bits. For high-security applications, this shared secret can be changed for generating a new key. For other types of applications, we show that this step is nonobligatory since the bit string is partially updated every time a new key is generated. Additionally, the Strict Avalanche Criteria (SAC) of any hash function design results in a change of 50% of the output bits for a one-bit change in the input to the hash function. Therefore, the shared secret is acquired only one time as an initial value (IV). It also serves as an authentication vehicle. The proposed technique uses simple arithmetic and logic operations that provide uncomplicated and efficient software and hardware implementations.
Views: 203 Magdy Saeb
Advances in Quantum Algorithms & Devices: Quantum Monte Carlo versus Quantum Adiabatic Optimization
 
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How many queries are needed to determine a polynomial F(X)? We look at this question when F(X) is defined over a finite field GF(q) and has degree d, such that d+1 queries are obviously sufficient. Shamir's Secret Sharing protocol is based on the result that d+1 classical queries are also needed as no interpolation is possible based on only d values of F. Here we look at how many quantum queries are sufficient to perform the same task. Earlier work by [Kane & Kutin 2009] and [Meyer & Pommersheim 2010] proved that at least d/2+1/2 quantum queries are needed, while [Boneh and Zhandry 2012] showed that d quantum queries are sufficient. In this talk we will describe a quantum algorithm that uses only d/2+1/2 queries and that has a constant success probability. Our algorithm relies on the analysis of the classical Moment Problem defined over finite fields. (Joint work with Andrew Childs)
Views: 126 Microsoft Research
Map of Computer Science
 
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The field of computer science summarised. Learn more at this video's sponsor https://brilliant.org/dos Computer science is the subject that studies what computers can do and investigates the best ways you can solve the problems of the world with them. It is a huge field overlapping pure mathematics, engineering and many other scientific disciplines. In this video I summarise as much of the subject as I can and show how the areas are related to each other. A couple of notes on this video: 1. Some people have commented that I should have included computer security alongside hacking, and I completely agree, that was an oversight on my part. Apologies to all the computer security professionals, and thanks for all the hard work! 2. I also failed to mention interpreters alongside compilers in the complier section. Again, I’m kicking myself because of course this is an important concept for people to hear about. Also the layers of languages being compiled to other languages is overly convoluted, in practice it is more simple than this. I guess I should have picked one simple example. 3. NP-complete problems are possible to solve, they just become very difficult to solve very quickly as they get bigger. When I said NP-complete and then "impossible to solve", I meant that the large NP-complete problems that industry is interested in solving were thought to be practically impossible to solve. You can buy this poster here: https://www.redbubble.com/people/dominicwalliman/works/27929629-map-of-computer-science?p=poster&finish=semi_gloss&size=small Get all my other posters here: https://www.redbubble.com/people/dominicwalliman And free downloadable versions of this and the other posters here. If you want to print them out for educational purposes please do! https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/ Thanks so much to my supporters on Patreon. If you enjoy my videos and would like to help me make more this is the best way and I appreciate it very much. https://www.patreon.com/domainofscience I also write a series of children’s science books call Professor Astro Cat, these links are to the publisher, but they are available in all good bookshops around the world in 18 languages and counting: Frontiers of Space (age 7+): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-frontiers-of-space/ Atomic Adventure (age 7+): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-atomic-adventure/ Intergalactic Activity Book (age 7+): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-intergalactic-activity-book/ Solar System Book (age 3+, available in UK now, and rest of world in spring 2018): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-solar-system/? Solar System App: http://www.minilabstudios.com/apps/professor-astro-cats-solar-system/ And the new Professor Astro Cat App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/galactic-genius-with-astro-cat/id1212841840?mt=8 Find me on twitter, Instagram, and my website: http://dominicwalliman.com https://twitter.com/DominicWalliman https://www.instagram.com/dominicwalliman https://www.facebook.com/dominicwalliman
Views: 1333245 Domain of Science
The Enigma encryption machine | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
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WW2 Encryption is explored with a focus on the Enigma. Read more here. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/perfect-secrecy?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/frequency-stability?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 187201 Khan Academy Labs
The Shannon Centennial: 1100100 years of bits
 
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Claude Elwood Shannon, father of the information age, was born 100 years ago, on April 30th, 1916. He defined the entropy of information, coined the term “bit”, and laid the foundations of the communication networks we have today. http://www.itsoc.org/resources/Shannon-Centenary https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Shannon#Shannon_Centenary
Quantum Information and Complexity 1 - Terhal
 
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Lecture 1 of 2 in Series This is one of the Boulder Summer School 2010 lecture video. The lecturer is Dr. Barbara Terhal from IBM Watson. You can find the lecture notes on the BSS2010 website under the link of \Lecture Notes\": http://boulder.research.yale.edu/Boulder-2010/index.html" Hits on scivee.tv prior to youtube upload: 1164
Views: 304 ICAM - I2CAM
Designer Non-Abelian Anyons - J. Alicea - 2/24/2015
 
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Introduction by Olexei Motrunich. Learn more about the Inaugural Celebration and Symposium of the Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics: https://burkeinstitute.caltech.edu/workshops/Inaugural_Symposium Produced in association with Caltech Academic Media Technologies. ©2015 California Institute of Technology
Views: 741 caltech
What is the science behind Quantum Computers?
 
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what the science Quantum computer, another sci-fi word or the future reality....watch to find out The first computer was made in the year 1949. Which was called ENIC, electronic numerical integrator and computer. It was so huge that it took an entire floor or two, and at the same time, it was very slow and less powerful as compared to the modern-day computers. But as the time went by computers had become smaller and smarter, this reduction of size will continue and soon the Morden day computers will reach its physical limit. Here is where quantum computers come in, These computers will be extremely powerful and will also help to create smaller and more powerful computers. Please do like share and subscribe. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UClFHOffx2_DpPHNz2WdvQsA Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/wtsavk/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/wts_avk
Views: 437 What The Science
“Quantum Computing: Far Away? Around the Corner?" at ACM Turing 50 Celebration
 
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Quantum computing holds the promise to enormously increase computing performance in areas including cryptography, optimization, search, quantum chemistry, materials science, artificial intelligence, machine learning, personalized medicine and drug discovery. Quantum computing hardware is maturing swiftly. Depending on the expert you talk with, quantum computing is around the corner or a few years away. Concurrently, research on algorithms that take advantage of quantum computing is also moving briskly. In this discussion, panelists will look at where we are in both theory and practice, where we are headed, and what quantum skills the average computer scientist will eventually need. Moderator: Umesh Vazirani, University of California, Berkeley Panelists: Dorit Aharonov, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jay M. Gambetta, IBM Research John Martinis, Google and University of California, Santa Barbara Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (2000 Turing Laureate), Tsinghua University
Some Applications of Group Theory to the Arithmetic of Abelian Varieties Pre-Talk
 
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AGNES is a series of weekend workshops in algebraic geometry. One of our goals is to introduce graduate students to a broad spectrum of current research in algebraic geometry. AGNES is held twice a year at participating universities in the Northeast. Pre-talk presented by Kiran Kedlaya.
Views: 939 Brown University
2011 Killian Lecture: Ronald L. Rivest, "The Growth of Cryptography"
 
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Lecture title: "The Growth of Cryptography" Ronald L. Rivest, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science who helped develop one of the world's most widely used Internet security systems, was MIT’s James R. Killian, Jr. Faculty Achievement Award winner for 2010–2011. Rivest, the Andrew and Erna Viterbi professor in MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, is known for his pioneering work in the field of cryptography, computer, and network security. February 8, 2011 Huntington Hall (10-250)
Introduction to AI for Video Games
 
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Welcome to my new reinforcement learning course! For the next 10 weeks we're going to go from the basics to the state of the art in this popular subfield of machine learning using video game environments as our testbed. RL is a huge reason DeepMind and OpenAI have been so successful thus far in creating world changing AI bots. Make sure to subscribe so you'll get updated with every new video I release. And don't worry if you don't understand policy iteration or value iteration just yet, I merely wanted to introduce these phrases in this video, next week i'm going to really dive into what these 2 methods look like programmatically. Code for this video (with coding challenge): https://github.com/llSourcell/AI_for_video_games_demo Syllabus for this course: https://github.com/llSourcell/AI_for_Video_Games_Syllabus Please Subscribe! And like. And comment. That's what keeps me going. Want more inspiration & education? Follow me: Twitter: https://twitter.com/sirajraval Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sirajology More learning resources: https://medium.com/emergent-future/simple-reinforcement-learning-with-tensorflow-part-0-q-learning-with-tables-and-neural-networks-d195264329d0 http://icml.cc/2016/tutorials/deep_rl_tutorial.pdf https://github.com/MorvanZhou/Reinforcement-learning-with-tensorflow https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2017/01/introduction-to-reinforcement-learning-implementation/ https://web.mst.edu/~gosavia/tutorial.pdf http://karpathy.github.io/2016/05/31/rl/ http://www.wildml.com/2016/10/learning-reinforcement-learning/ https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-good-tutorials-on-reinforcement-learning Join us in the Wizards Slack channel: http://wizards.herokuapp.com/ And please support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=3191693 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sirajraval/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sirajraval/ Signup for my newsletter for exciting updates in the field of AI: https://goo.gl/FZzJ5w
Views: 39768 Siraj Raval
MIT Museum Soap Box Series: Quantum Computers and Philosophy of Science
 
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Quantum Quandaries and other Heavy Matters. Spring 2017, MIT Museum. The MIT Museum held a three-part, salon-style series that looked at some of the stranger and more mysterious aspects of the physical universe. Participants were encouraged to add their voices to the discussion while meeting new people and learning about current research in the field. This event was held February 28, and the topic was "Quantum Computers and Philosophy of Science." Speakers included: Paola Cappellaro, Associate Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering, MIT, and Brad Skow, Associate Professor of Philosophy, MIT. The series was moderated by David Kaiser.
Views: 405 MIT Museum
KEITH HUNTER:  MEGALITHIC MONUMENTS AND SECRET MILITARY BASES
 
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I interview Keith Hunter regarding his latest research on Megalithic monuments and how they are linked to secret military bases. his website: http://www.occultphysics.com/ KERRY CASSIDY http://projectcamelot.tv
Views: 19084 Project Camelot
Fix Dependency Error Kodi-The dependency on script.module.urlresolver version
 
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Fix Dependency Error Kodi-The dependency on script.module.urlresolver version-kodi dependency errors-failed to install dependency script.module.urlresolver-dependency error kodi. ****************************************************************** I get the following error message/notification while try to install the exodus on kodi 17.3 krypton: Exodus The dependency on script.module.urlresolver version or Failed to install dependency script.module.liveresolver ****************************************************************** This tutorial is about how to fix failed to install dependency exodus. This error "script.exodus.artwork" solution is works on kodi all versions like that kodi 17,kodi 17.1,kodi 16,kodi 16.1,kodi firestick,xbmc kodi also. This kodi open source media software is also available for android users,you can get it from google play store. ****************************************************************** Fix failed to install dependency kodi: 1.Goto your kodi home then goto settings, by click to settings icon and goto "File manager". 2.Here you can click to open "Add source" option and you can enter the following i mentioned url. 3.Now you can goto kodi home -addons, here you can click to open "Box icon" and goto "Install from zip file". 4.Here you can locate "Caz" and click to open it,now goto "Repository" then select "repository.simplycaz.zip" file. 5.Now wait for sometime and then goto "Install from repository" - simply caz repo - video addons. 6.Finally you can locate "Exodus" and click to install it. 7.Now the problem "kodi dependency issue" is solved. 8.Using this way also you can fix "kodi dependency script.module.metahandler" error. ******************************************************************
Views: 57626 Teconz
Information theory
 
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Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and computer science involving the quantification of information. Information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography, neurobiology, the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, plagiarism detection and other forms of data analysis. A key measure of information is entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed to store or communicate one symbol in a message. Entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting the value of a random variable. For example, specifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (six equally likely outcomes). This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 210 Audiopedia
UK TechDays Online is back!
 
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Event description: This summer, we're setting up studio at the Microsoft Reactor in London and broadcasting through London Tech Week, bringing you a mix of deep technical content and thoughtful future vision keynotes. Running from June 12th to 14th, there's 4 technical tracks across the 3 days for you to indulge in. Agenda: Thursday June 14th Quantum Computing - 10:00 - 13:30 - a chance to delve into Microsoft Q# development environment after a keynote session from Microsoft Director of Quantum Computing, Julie Love.
Views: 1462 Microsoft Developer
Mod-01 Lec-39 Simplex Algorithm is not polynomial time- An example.
 
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Linear programming and Extensions by Prof. Prabha Sharma, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, IIT Kanpur For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 1791 nptelhrd
Leftover Hash Lemma, Revisited (Crypto 2011)
 
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Talk at Crypto 2011, August 15, 2011. Boaz Barak, Yevgeniy Dodis, Hugo Krawczyk, Olivier Pereira, Krzysztof Pietrzak, François-Xavier Standaert, and Yu Yu Microsoft Research New England; New York University; IBM Research; Université Catholique de Louvain; CWI Amsterdam; Université Catholique de Louvain;and East China Normal University Abstract. The famous Leftover Hash Lemma (LHL) states that (almost) universal hash functions are good randomness extractors. Despite its numerous applications, LHL-based extractors suffer from the following two drawbacks: Large Entropy Loss: to extract $v$ bits from distribution $X$ of min-entropy $m$ which are $\epsilon$-close to uniform, one must set $v \le m - 2*\log(1/\epsilon)$, meaning that the entropy loss $L = m-v \ge 2*\log(1/\epsilon)$. Large Seed Length: the seed length $n$ of (almost) universal hash function required by the LHL must be at least $n \ge \min(u-v, v + 2*\log(1/\epsilon))-O(1)$, where $u$ is the length of the source. Quite surprisingly, we show that both limitations of the LHL — large entropy loss and large seed — can often be overcome (or, at least, mitigated) in various quite general scenarios. First, we show that entropy loss could be reduced to $L = \log (1/\epsilon)$ for the setting of deriving secret keys for a wide range of cryptographic applications. Specifically, the security of these schemes with an LHL-derived key gracefully degrades from $\epsilon$ to at most $\epsilon+\sqrt{\epsilon 2^{-L}}$. (Notice that, unlike standard LHL, this bound is meaningful even when one extracts more bits than the min-entropy we have!) Based on these results we build a general computational extractor that enjoys low entropy loss and can be used to instantiate a generic key derivation function for any cryptographic application. Second, we study the soundness of the natural expand-then-extract approach, where one uses a pseudorandom generator (PRG) to expand a short "input seed" $S$ into a longer "output seed" $S'$, and then use the resulting $S'$ as the seed required by the LHL (or, more generally, by any randomness extractor). We show that, in general, the expand-then extract approach is not sound if the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption is true. Despite that, we show that it is sound either: (1) when extracting a "small" (logarithmic in the security of the PRG) number of bits; or (2) in minicrypt. Implication (2) suggests that the expand-then-extract approach is likely secure when used with "practical" PRGs, despite lacking a reductionist proof of security! See http://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=23565
Views: 1700 TheIACR
Quantum computer
 
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A quantum computer is a computation device that makes direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses qubits (quantum bits), which can be in superpositions of states. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer. Quantum computers share theoretical similarities with non-deterministic and probabilistic computers; one example is the ability to be in more than one state simultaneously. The field of quantum computing was first introduced by Yuri Manin in 1980 and Richard Feynman in 1982. A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum space--time in 1969. As of 2014 quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 275 Audiopedia

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