Susan Tuddenham discusses the role of the intestinal microbiome in human health and disease. To learn more about this event and to access slides for this presentation please visit: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/institute_basic_biomedical_sciences/news_events/2017_The_Frenemy_Within.html
Views: 4245 Johns Hopkins Medicine
The microbiota as instructor and arbiter of immune responses in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, February 22, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:07:59 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The vertebrate intestinal tract is colonized by hundreds of species of bacteria that outnumber the total cells in the host, yet must be compartmentalized and tolerated to prevent invasive growth and harmful inflammatory responses. A key function of commensal microbes is to contribute to the adaptive immune repertoire and to diverse lymphocyte effector functions. T cell responses against non-invasive commensals contribute to shaping the repertoire of effector/memory and regulatory T cells. How T cells elicited by commensal bacteria can influence autoimmunity is a central question that remains unsolved. The Littman Lab studies the antigenic specificity of microbiota-induced T cells and the mechanisms by which their functions are acquired upon interaction with distinct commensal species. His lab finds that Th17 cells, which are central to mucosal barrier defense but also participate in autoimmune disease, are induced by specific constituents of the microbiota, and acquire effector function only after additional exposure to endogenous adjuvants, such as the serum amyloid A proteins. The lab's studies in mice are not only relevant for human autoimmune diseases, many of which have Th17 cell involvement, but may also provide insights into how commensal microbe-specific T cell responses could be harnessed for mucosal vaccination and cancer immunotherapy. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Dan R. Littman, M.D., Ph.D., Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Kimmel Professor of Molecular Immunology at New York University School of Medicine Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?22148
Views: 5658 nihvcast
We’re learning what a vital role good gut bacteria play in immune health, brain health, mood, and, of course, gut health. One of the best health quotes of all time is… “Health comes from above, down, inside, out” We also know that the best way to beef up your good gut bacteria is through eating lots of different kinds of vegetables and fruits every day. But researchers have discovered yet another way to promote healthy gut bacteria: Regular exercise. Our digestive tract is home to trillions of gut bacteria that weigh about three to four pounds all together, and are made up of over a 1,000 different species and 5,000 strains. This is the very definition of a symbiotic relationship. Our body depends on these gut bacteria to: • Metabolize nutrients • Protect the intestinal wall • Produce vitamin K and short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are important for immune health • Maintain health of the digestive tract • Regulate immunity • Prevent inflammation • Promote good brain health and function - infant many studies are even finding that Parkinsons may actually start in the gut and work its way up the vagus nerve into the brain. But that is another post for another blog. Very interesting stuff though. As our understanding of healthy gut bacteria evolves, so does the information on how to cultivate your own “microbiome” while inhibiting overgrowth of “bad” bacteria that are infectious and inflammatory. This imbalance of good and bad bacteria is often what is referred as dysbiosis - Too many bad bacteria and not enough good bacteria. Initially, fermented foods and probiotics were thought to be the main recourse for improving gut health, and they do go a long ways. But, they are not the only way. Then we learned eating a diet comprised primarily of vegetables and fruits and continually changing up the produce you eat is a great way to develop a rich and diverse gut bacteria population. Now, scientists have used both a mouse study and a human study to show regular exercise, independent of diet or other factors, also promotes healthy gut bacteria. Meaning that if you do nothing other than exercise you can beneficially change your gut bacteria. In the first study, researchers transplanted fecal material from both exercised and sedentary mice into mice with sterile guts. The activity level of the mice receiving the transplants clearly mirrored that of their donors, showing that the kind of gut bacteria we have plays a role in how inclined we are to be sedentary or active. The exercised mice recipients also showed more bacteria that produce butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that promotes healthy intestinal cells, reduces inflammation, and increases energy. They also were more resistant to ulcerative colitis. N-butyrate is THE most important short chain fatty acid. In the second study, researchers tracked the composition of gut bacteria in 18 lean and 14 obese adults as they transitioned from a sedentary lifestyle, to an active one, and then back to a sedentary one. Their exercise routine consisted of 30 to 60 minutes of cardiovascular exercise three times a week for six weeks. Their diets remained the same. For the full blog article and links visit: http://premierifm.com/blog_files/exercise-and-gut-bacteria.html
Views: 464 Dr. Craig Mortensen
For every cell in your body, there’s another tiny single-celled creature that also calls your body home. Far from being germs we should eradicate, these ancient friends allow us to digest food, breathe air, and fight off disease. They were here long before us and will undoubtedly remain long after we’re gone. They are our microbiome, and after eons of cohabitation, we are finally getting to know one another better. Of course, we aren’t always the best of neighbors. Autoimmune diseases, allergies, depression, and Alzheimer’s may be diseases of an unhappy microbiome. PARTICIPANTS: Martin Blaser, Jo Handelsman, Rob Knight, and David Relman MODERATOR: Dr. Emily Senay MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS: https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/programs/wsf18_b_09/ This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation. - Subscribe to our YouTube Channel and ring the "bell" for all the latest from WSF - Visit our Website: http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/ - Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/worldsciencefestival/ - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WorldSciFest TOPICS: - Program introduction 03:12 - Participant introductions 03:40 - When do we acquire our microbiome? 04:50 - Connection between the microbiome and our immune system 07:00 - Using mice to study the microbiome 07:45 - When does your microbiome stabilize? 08:55 - What is the Human Microbiome Project? 11:20 - How unique is each person's microbiome? 14:02 - Mapping the microbiome on different areas of the body 14:54 - The effects of extensive antibiotic use on the microbiome and cause of modern diseases 15:19 - Are the microbes in dirt good for us? 18:01 - Rates of asthma in the Amish and Hutterites 19:50 - Hygiene hypothesis 21:20 - Antibiotic use and the rise of obesity in the US 23:25 - Obesity and the microbiome 25:05 - How do changes in the microbiome get passed from generation to generation? 29:30 - C. difficile and fecal transplants 33:20 - Can fecal transplants be used to treat other diseases? 37:57 - Connection between the gut and the brain 42:00 - Can the microbiome cause depression? 43:20 - How do you study depression in mice? 46:25 - Is there a strong association between what is happening in the gut and behavior? 49:35 - Is the microbiome connected to autism? 50:51 - How do the microbiomes of hunter-gatherers living in primitive conditions compared to people with high exposure to antibiotics? 52:45 - Is it possible that we'll never recapture our full ancestral microbiota diversity? 54:15 - How can we keep our microbiome happy and healthy? 56:51 - The role of the microbiome in precision medicine and drug efficacy 59:15 - Do probiotics really work? 1:03:04 PROGRAM CREDITS: - Produced by Nils Kongshaug - Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro - Opening film produced / directed by Vin Liota - Music provided by APM - Additional images and footage provided by: Getty Images, Shutterstock, Videoblocks, Kishony Lab at Harvard Medical School and Technion--Israel Institute of Technology, Mazmanian Lab at California Institute of Technology, CDC This program was recorded live at the 2018 World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.
Views: 13582 World Science Festival
The environmentally exposed surfaces of mammals, such as the skin, mouth, gut, and vagina, are colonized by a diverse ecosystem of microbes. Though many of these bacteria - particularly those of the distal gut - are considered symbiotic, the microbiome has the capacity to induce both pro- and anti- inflammatory responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that a properly balanced gut microbiome is crucial for a correctly functioning immune system, and that imbalances in the microbial community of the intestine are linked to a multitude of auto-inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. This symposium will discuss the roles of the microbiome in murine models of various inflammatory disease states, and the advantages to utilizing germ-free/gnotobiotic mice when probing disease models with a microbiome component.
Views: 342 Biomodels, LLC
The gut microbiome includes bacteria, bacteriophages, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and archaea, and this community of organisms is critical to the maintenance of human health, as well as in the pathophysiology of various diseases. The community in your gut is unique, much like your fingerprint. They began to colonize you the moment you were born and can change throughout your lifetime. Good bacteria in your gut help you absorb nutrients from your food. They also take up space and hog vital nutrients so harmful microorganisms are not able to colonize, and educate immune cells in the identification of harmful invaders. However, did you know that your gut microbiome also affects your mental health? These tiny beings help you break down food traveling through your intestines, hence producing metabolites influencing all your cells – including those of your nervous system. Simultaneously, immune responses to harmful pathogens produce molecules that can also affect brain physiology. But that’s just scratching the surface. A healthy and diverse microbiome is essential for normal cognitive and emotional processing. Your microbiome communicates with the central nervous system – aka the brain and spinal cord – through nervous, endocrine, and immune signaling mechanisms. We don’t yet have a good understanding of how the gut microbiome and central nervous system influence one another, but it’s been shown that changes in gut flora composition can result in increased intestinal permeability, allowing neuroactive compounds through and activating the inflammatory response. Yet other microbiota can produce compounds that affect gene expression in the nervous system. Research has shown that changes in microbiota can cause depression, change social interactions, protect from stress-induced changes to the immune system, and can cause physiological changes that are even transferable between species! Our lifestyle has a major effect on the composition of our microbiome. What we eat, our stress levels, and our emotional state determine which organisms can live on in our gut. The human gut microbiota is generally fairly stable and resists change in community makeup. However, the brain can modulate the composition of our gut community by changing intestinal permeability and secretions, as well as through the release of hormones that affect microbial gene expression. Our gut flora composition can also be perturbed by changes in hormones or diet, antibiotics and stress. Reduction of the normal gut biota population – for instance while taking antibiotics – provides an opportunity for pathogens to colonize the gut epithelium. It has been known for a while that the gastrointestinal system communicates with the brain. The enteric nervous system is a mesh-like set of 500 million neurons governing the gastrointestinal tract. That’s 5 times as many neurons as there are in your spinal cord – no wonder the enteric nervous system is sometimes called the second brain! The enteric nervous system CAN operate autonomously, however, it communicates with the central nervous system via the vagus nerve and prevertebral ganglia. This biochemical signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system is called the gut-brain axis. However, it is only now being realized just how much of an affect the microbiome has on the brain. Hence, this bidirectional interaction between the microbiome and the central nervous system has been termed the microbiome-gut-brain axis. The gut microbiome and central nervous system have bidirectional effects on one another. More research on this topic will help us get further insights into disorders of both the gut and the central nervous system. This is exciting news, because perhaps neuropsychiatric disorders will one day be treated through gut microbiota! Preclinical studies have identified plainly the powerful influence of gut microbiota on the central nervous system, but there are still issues with reproducibility, so we need continued improvement of experimental approaches. So what can you do to maintain the gut of your gut flora? Eat a healthy diet! Also, antibiotic resistance is no longer the only reason to not over-prescribe antibiotics.
Views: 239 Neural Academy
Episode #81: Drs Justin and Erica Sonnenburg are two top microbial scientists at Stanford University and author of The Good Gut. In this interview these two pioneers share diet tips from their work at Stanford that can help you increase the diversity of the trillions of bacterial organisms in your gut, boost your metabolism and reduce inflammation. The Good Gut Book: http://amzn.to/1SYkEeB Read the Interview Show Notes: http://highintensityhealth.com/justin-erica-sonnenburg-top-foods-to-fuel-healthy-gut-bacteria/ --------------------------------------Lets Connect---------------------------------- ➢ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/MikeMutzelMS ➢ Listen to the Audio in iTunes: http://highintensityhealth.com/itunes ➢ Instagram https://www.instagram.com/metabolic_mike --------------------------------------Key Takeaways--------------------------------- 2:29 The Power of Microbes: Over the past decade there has been an awakening about the gut, microbiome and genetics. Microbes connect in major ways to human biology with digestion, metabolism, systemic immune function and central nervous system. There is no part of our body that is not touched, directly or indirectly, by these microbes in some way. 4:32 Microbial Digestion: Gut microbes rely upon complex carbohydrates (dietary fiber) to complete their functions in the gut. They digest our resistant complex polysaccharides that come from plant material; fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. At the same time, they release compounds into our gut that are soaked into our bloodstream that do things like help maintain our immune system balance and help us decide whether we are storing calories or burning them. 5:56 Feed Your Microbes: High fiber foods feed your microbes. The Sonnenburgs make sure that their family consumes high fiber foods at every meal. 7:30 Microbial Diversity – The Jelly Bean Analogy: Think of each species of gut bacteria as a color of jelly bean. The Western diet will be a simple mix of a few colors. Modern day hunter gatherers or those who live similarly to those at the beginning of agriculture, have many more colors of jelly beans. They have species of gut bacteria that are not seen in the Western world. In the environment, if an ecosystem loses its diversity, it’s a bad thing. Potentially, that is the case with our microbial ecosystem? 9:25 A Skewed Perspective of Microbes: Research has primarily focused on Westerners, but now research is looking into populations around the globe. The NIH Human Microbiome Project spent years working to determine what a healthy microbiota is and working to determine how the microbiome changes in different disease states. 10:20 Microbiota, a Key Player in Disease: Just because someone is healthy, doesn’t mean they have a healthy microbiota. Evidence is building that shows that most Americans have unhealthy gut microbiota, which predisposes us to many Western diseases. Metabolic syndrome, heart disaease, autoimmune diseases, cancers, and the like, are all become more prevalent. It is possible that there are individual causes for these diseases, but more likely, that there are only a few causes and that gut microbiota is central of them. 11:54 Traditional Societies: Humans have spent 95% of our time on the earth as hunter gatherers. By looking at hunter gatherer societies today, we can get a better understanding of what our gut microbiota is supposed to be. 13:39 The High MAC Diet: Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates are dietary fiber that we consume to feed our microbiota. Tubers eaten by hunter gatherers have not been modified by agriculture, making it texturally and nutritionally different from what we eat. Since we cannot recreate the diet of hunter gatherers, we can eat lots of different foods, including tubers, along with berries and leafy greens and increase fiber to diversify and sustain our microbiota. 15:56 Polyphenols: When researching the impact of plant fiber, it is challenging for researchers to parse out the other benefits of the consumption of plants. In general, Westerners should eat more plants that contain complex dietary fibers, not only to feed their microbiota, but to garner the other benefits. 18:01 Fiber Consumption Comparison: Hunter gatherers consume about 150 – 200 grams per day of dietary fiber. In the U.S., we struggle to eat 15 grams per day. If you starve the microbes in the gut, they begin to consume the mucus lining of your digestive tract. 19:32 Short Chain Fatty Acids Created By Our Microbiota: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the major ones. In mice, propionate has been shown to be a regulator of metabolism. Butyrate and propionate have shown in mice to be a regulator of inflammation. They may also play a role in satiety. One day we will have enough information to match our foods to specific microbes in our gut. Increase dietary fiber, to increase short chain fatty acids.
Views: 16055 High Intensity Health
Dr. Justin Sonnenburg is an associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg is a senior research scientist in the Sonnenburg lab where they the research many aspects the interaction between diet with the 100 trillion or so bacteria in the gut (specifically the colon) and how this impacts the health of the host (which in this case is a laboratory research mouse). In this episode we discuss the pivotal role fiber plays in fueling good bacteria in the gut to produce compounds that regulate the immune system including increasing the number of T regulatory cells, which are specialized types of immune cells that keep the immune system in check and prevent autoimmune responses, and how these compounds also increase other types of blood cells in the body in a process known as hematopoiesis. We also talk about how the lack of fiber in the typical American diet actually starves these good bacteria of their food. This has an effect not only on the immune system and autoimmune diseases but also results in the breakdown of the gut barrier, which leads to widespread inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Lastly, in this podcast, Dr. Erica Sonnenburg talks about how C-sections, have a negative effect on the infant’s gut due to the lack of exposure to bacteria present in the mother’s vaginal canal, and how the use of formula deprives the infant not only from the good bacteria present in Mom’s gut but also from special carbohydrates in breast milk that are good for the infant gut flora known as HMOs or human milk oligosaccharides. ▶︎ Get the show notes! https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/the-sonnenburgs Links related to the Sonnenburgs: ▶︎ http://sonnenburglab.stanford.edu/ ▶︎ http://www.facebook.com/thegoodgut ▶︎http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594206287/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=1594206287&linkCode=as2&tag=foun06-20&linkId=IOKAGDTRCL47XQN6 Links related to FoundMyFitness: ▶︎ Join my weekly newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=nutrigenomics ▶︎ Crowdfund more videos: http://www.patreon.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness
Views: 121284 FoundMyFitness
https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/ Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 6732 iBiology
Gut microbiome is thought to form during the early ages and remain stable throughout life. But recent studies indicate that our gut microbiome fluctuates with diurnal variations, and that disturbance in this pattern may lead to some of the most common diseases. Learn More… • Subscribe to Dr. Mayer’s FREE educational newsletter: http://emeranmayer.com/subscribe/ • The Mind-Gut Connection: https://goo.gl/mS6FrQ Follow Dr. Mayer… • Official website: http://emeranmayer.com/ • Facebook: http://facebook.com/emeranamayer • Twitter: https://twitter.com/emeranamayer • Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/emeranamayer/ Video Credits… • Film & Edit: Hyo Jin Ryu
Views: 544 Emeran Mayer, MD
Could the bacterial populations in your intestines predict the onset of colon cancer? Participants will discuss new research in mouse models that suggests a major shift in microbial population dynamic prior to the onset of tumors as well as the general promise microbiome research holds for the diagnosis and potential management of other diseases. Joseph Zackular, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States David Relman, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States
Views: 1159 American Society for Microbiology
Dietary modification has long been used empirically to modify symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and a diverse group of diseases with gastrointestinal symptoms. There is both anecdotal and scientific evidence to suggest that individuals respond quite differently to similar dietary changes, and the highly individualized nature of the gut microbiota makes it a prime candidate for these differences. To overcome the typical confounding factors of human dietary interventions, here we employ ex-germfree mice colonized by microbiotas of three different humans to test how different microbiotas respond to a defined change in carbohydrate content of diet by measuring changes in microbiota composition and function using marker gene-based next-generation sequencing and metabolomics. Our findings suggest that the same diet has very different effects on each microbiota’s membership and function, which may in turn explain interindividual differences in response to a dietary ingredient. Samuel A. Smits, Angela Marcobal, Steven Higginbottom, Justin L. Sonnenburg, Purna C. Kashyap Pieter C. Dorrestein, Editor Published in mSystems on 6 September 2016 Direct link: http://doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00098-16 mSystems™ publishes preeminent work that stems from applying technologies for high-throughput analyses to achieve insights into the metabolic and regulatory systems at the scale of both the single cell and microbial communities. The scope of mSystems™ encompasses all important biological and biochemical findings drawn from analyses of large data sets, as well as new computational approaches for deriving these insights. mSystems™ welcomes submissions from researchers who focus on the microbiome, genomics, metagenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, glycomics, bioinformatics, and computational microbiology. mSystems™ provides streamlined decisions, while carrying on ASM's tradition of rigorous peer review. ______________________________________________ Subscribe to ASM's YouTube channel at https://goo.gl/mOVHlK Learn more about the American Society for Microbiology at http://www.asm.org Become a member today at http://www.asmscience.org/join Interact with us on social at: Facebook Show your support and get updates on the latest microbial offerings and news from the ASM. http://www.facebook.com/asmfan ASM International Facebook Groups Join an ASM International Facebook Group and connect with microbiologists in your region. http://www.asm.org/index.php/programs/asm-international-facebook-groups Twitter Follow all the latest news from the Society. http://www.twitter.com/ASMicrobiology Instagram Outstanding images of your favorite viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites http://www.instagram.com/asmicrobiology/
Views: 683 American Society for Microbiology
Elaine Hsiao is a postdoctoral fellow in chemistry and biology at Caltech. She received her undergraduate degree in microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics from UCLA and her doctoral degree in neurobiology from Caltech with Professor Paul Patterson. She studied neuroimmune mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders and uncovered a role for the commensal microbiota in regulating autism-related behaviors, metabolism, and intestinal physiology. Elaine has received several honors, including predoctoral fellowships from the National Institute of Health, Autism Speaks and the Caltech Innovation Program. She is currently studying the mechanisms by which microbes modulate host production of neuroactive molecules and aims to better understand how the human microbiota influences health and disease. In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations) On January 18, 2013, Caltech hosted TEDxCaltech: The Brain, a forward-looking celebration of humankind's quest to understand the brain, by exploring the past, present and future of neuroscience. Visit TEDxCaltech.com for more details.
Views: 231419 TEDx Talks
📄 Papers discussed: Cekanaviciute E. et al. Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models. PNAS. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/05/1711235114 Berer K. et al. Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. PNAS. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/05/1711233114.full · Stat news: https://www.statnews.com/2017/09/11/gut-microbiome-multiple-sclerosis/ · Genetic Literacy Project: https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/09/19/multiple-sclerosis-diseases-exacerbated-gut-microbes/ Gomez A. et al. Host Genetic Control of the Oral Microbiome in Health and Disease. Cell Host and Microbe. http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(17)30346-3 Shaw L. et al. The human salivary microbiome is shaped by shared environment rather than genetics: evidence from a large family of closely related individuals. mBio. http://mbio.asm.org/content/8/5/e01237-17.full Cell Host and Microbe commentary: http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(17)30351-7?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS1931312817303517%3Fshowall%3Dtrue Mamantopoulos M. et al. Nlrp6- and ASC-dependent inflammasomes do not shape the commensal gut microbiota composition. Immunity. http://www.cell.com/immunity/abstract/S1074-7613(17)30318-7 · PubPeer discussion thread: https://pubpeer.com/publications/58583AEA81F7008C1147F11A996C11#4 Chevalier A. et al. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics. Nature. https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature23912.html · Scicasts.com: https://scicasts.com/channels/bio-it/1858-drug-development/12928-mini-protein-rapid-design-method-opens-way-to-create-new-class-of-drugs/ · Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (with video): http://www.genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/novel-technique-designs-mini-proteins-that-may-lead-to-new-types-of-therapeutics/81254982 · Phys.org: https://phys.org/news/2017-09-mini-protein-rapid-method-class-drugs.html Zhu Z. et al. Zika virus has oncolytic activity against gioblastoma stem cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine. http://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2017/09/05/jem.20171093 · New Scientist: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2146356-we-may-be-able-to-use-zika-virus-to-attack-brain-cancer-cells/ · Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170905093550.htm · CBS: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/could-zika-virus-help-battle-deadly-brain-cancer/ Subscribe to ASM's YouTube channel at https://goo.gl/mOVHlK Learn more about the American Society for Microbiology at http://www.asm.org Become a member today at http://www.asmscience.org/join Interact with us on social at: Facebook Show your support and get updates on the latest microbial offerings and news from the ASM. http://www.facebook.com/asmfan ASM International Facebook Groups Join an ASM International Facebook Group and connect with microbiologists in your region. http://www.asm.org/index.php/programs/asm-international-facebook-groups Twitter Follow all the latest news from the Society. http://www.twitter.com/ASMicrobiology Instagram Outstanding images of your favorite viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites http://www.instagram.com/asmicrobiology/
Views: 748 American Society for Microbiology
Lab mice have been the most common tool to study how the microbiome affects host physiology in health and disease, but do they really represent what’s going on in the real world? A new study surveying the microbiome of a large population of wild-caught mice suggests that this might not be the case. Check out the paper at: http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)31065-6. Stephan P. Rosshart, Brian G. Vassallo, Davide Angeletti, Diane S. Hutchinson, Andrew P. Morgan, Kazuyo Takeda, Heather D. Hickman, John A. McCulloch, Jonathan H. Badger, Nadim J. Ajami, Giorgio Trinchieri, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Jonathan W. Yewdell, and Barbara Rehermann (2016). Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease Resistance. Cell 171. And read more great research at http://www.cell.com/cell/home.
Views: 1453 Cell Press
Interview with Brent Polk, Chair of the Pediatrics Department at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, about gut microbiota evolution. Learn more at: http://www.gutmicrobiotaforhealth.com/en/an-interview-with-brent-polk-just-a-few-years-ago-we-thought-humans-were-completely-sterile-at-birth/
Views: 510 Gut Microbiota News Watch
https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/#part-2 Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 3070 iBiology
This video investigates the claim that eating yogurt boosts gut microbiota and repairs damaged microbiota. It explains what a microbiota is, the relationship between host and microbiota and the role of yogurt in the health of microbiota health. Information is provided about how the consumption of yogurt can affect the composition, structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract. The video concludes that yogurt itself does not contain the wide range of microorganisms that are required to repair a damaged microbiota and that those microorganisms in yougurt are often unable to colonize the human intestine. Therefore, the effects of yogurt consumption are often temporary. On the other hand, yogurt can be useful in speeding up the recovery of acute gastrointestinal problems. This video was made by Demystifying Medicine students Angela Gupta, Ingrid Kao, Kate Kim and Kaaran Gupta Copyright McMaster University 2018 Reference list: Adolfsson, O., Meydani, S. N., & Russell, R. M. (2004). Yogurt and gut function. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 80(2), 245-256. Bisanz, J., & Reid, G. (2011). Unraveling How Probiotic Yogurt Works. Science Translational Medicine, 3(106), 106ps41-106ps41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003291 Canadian Dairy Comission. (2017). Yogurt. Retrieved from http://www.milkingredients.ca/index-eng.php?id=197 John, T. (2017). What Is the Function of Folic Acid?. Retrieved from: https://www.livestrong.com/article/426140-what-is-the-function-of-folic-acid/ Shreiner, A., Kao, J., & Young, V. (2015). The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Current Opinion In Gastroenterology, 31(1), 69-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/mog.0000000000000139 He, T., Priebe, M.G., Zhong, Y., Huang, C., Harmsen, H.J., Raangs, G.C., Antoine, J.M., Welling, G.W., & Vonk, R.J. (2008). Effects of yogurt and bifidobacteria supplementation on the colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant subjects. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104(2), 595-604. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03579.x Quigley, E.M. (2015). Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 49(1), S60-4. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000348 Jafarnejad, S., Shab-Bidar, S., Speakman, J.R., Parastui, K., Daneshi-Maskooni, M., & Djafarian, K. (2016). Probiotics Reduce the Risk of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Adults (18-64 Years) but Not the Elderly (over 65 Years): A Meta-Analysis. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 31(4), 502-13. doi: 10.1177/0884533616639399. Wen, L., & Duffy, A. (2017). Factors Influencing the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Type 2 Diabetes. The Journal Of Nutrition, 147(7), 1468S-1475S. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.240754
Views: 479 Demystifying Medicine
Register to take full advantage of MicrobiomePost‘s features: http://bit.ly/2Sb2MCD Follow us on social media Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MicrobiomePost/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/MicrobiomePost LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/microbiomepost/ The microbiome has been investigated in relation to IBDs for decades, and now we know that bacteria have a role: in most research models the disease does not appear in the absence of microorganisms. In humans, deep microbial genotyping has clearly shown that an altered diversity is observed when comparing patients with IBD or ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease with healthy controls. There is therefore a reduced diversity both in ulcerative colitis and in Crohn's disease, but one point is not clear yet: is the change in diversity a cause or an effect of the inflammation that develops in patients? Although some studies have shown that even at the time of diagnosis the microbiota has already undergone variations, the question is not yet answered. Despite this, in a number of basic and translational studies researchers are trying to manipulate the microbiota for therapeutic purposes and some companies are aiming to develop new therapies based on these bacteria. A prospect is certainly faecal transplantation, which is effective mainly in C. difficile infections and could also work for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is unknown if it will be effective: in fact, intestinal microbiota transplants transfer a great diversity of organisms: not only "the good ones", but also the "bad ones". However, the results coming from the scientific literature are promising, particularly in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Studies are still ongoing and, as explained by Scott Snapper, gastroenterologist, professor at Harvard Medical School and director of the Inflamatory Bowel Disease Center at Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts, it is not yet possible to give a definitive judgment.
Views: 16 MicrobiomePost
Microbes in your body can control how you feel and what you want to eat, here's how. Super Bacteria Has a New Enemy: The CRISPR Pill - https://youtu.be/zWzQf2xzJek Read More: Is Your Gut Making You Depressed or Anxious? https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-your-gut-making-you-depressed-or-anxious/ “If you had to guess the organ that has undue influence on your emotions, your mood, even your choices, what would you guess? The brain? Sure, but what else? The heart—that mythological seat of the soul? Not quite.” How Many Cells Are in the Human Body—And How Many Microbes? https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/01/160111-microbiome-estimate-count “Your body is a microbial melting pot, home to trillions of bacteria that help keep you healthy and regular. And for decades, scientists have shown their importance with this alluring factoid: The microbes in your body outnumber your own cells ten to one.” Your Gut Bacteria Want You to Eat a Cupcake https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/08/your-gut-bacteria-want-you-to-eat “Humans’ gastrointestinal tracts are home to 10,000 species of bacteria, which get energy from our half-digested lunches. (Another estimate puts the number of species as high as 36,000.) In exchange, they help us break down food and keep harmful bacteria out, and have also been shown to help regulate fat storage and provide vitamins.” ____________________ Seeker explains every aspect of our world through a lens of science, inspiring a new generation of curious minds who want to know how today’s discoveries in science, math, engineering and technology are impacting our lives, and shaping our future. Our stories parse meaning from the noise in a world of rapidly changing information. Visit the Seeker website https://www.seeker.com/videos Elements on Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/SeekerElements/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel Seeker on Twitter http://twitter.com/seeker Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Seeker on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerMedia/ Seeker http://www.seeker.com/ Special thanks to Maren Hunsberger for hosting and writing this episode of Seeker! Check Maren out on Twitter: https://twitter.com/marenbeatrice
Views: 111539 Seeker
This clip was taken from the first FoundMyFitness interview with Dr. Satchin Panda found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-R-eqJDQ2nU.
Views: 515 FMF Clips
Presented by Christopher Hemme, PhD, Bioinformatics Core Coordinator at URI RI-INBRE For more info: https://www.brown.edu/academics/computational-molecular-biology/cbc-microbiomemetagenome-analysis-workshop Tuesday, November 7th 2017 Brown University
Views: 2876 Brown University
Can gut bugs change the world? Join Warren Peters on a journey into understanding your microbiome and the new discoveries changing the way we understand diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, autism, and our everyday health and wellness. If asked, he will tell you that the first part of his medical career was in general surgery, where “if something is wrong with you, I will cut it out." The next was dedicated to lifestyle and natural medicines, where “if something is wrong with you, just try harder." And finally, the last part is dedicated to the molecular and genetic basis of obesity, where "if something is wrong with you, it is the fault of your parents and the changing environment." Within these three perspectives, reside the virtues of common sense and wisdom. He obtained his medical degree from Loma Linda University, his surgical training at the Mason Clinic in Seattle Washington, and, his Master’s degree in biostatistics and epidemiology from Loma Linda University. He is privileged to travel and lecture nationally and internationally on topics of nutrition, wholeness, and wellness. He has practiced surgical care, wholistic care, and, primary care in Washington, Maryland, Virginia, and California. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 181441 TEDx Talks
The ketogenic diet is a low-carb/high-fat diet showing many health benefits but how does it affect the microbiome? Blog: https://www.agreatgutfeeling.com/blog-3/2019/3/1/is-the-ketogenic-diet-good-for-your-microbiome German translation: https://www.agreatgutfeeling.com/german-blogs/keto-und-das-mikrobiom Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AGreatGutFeeling/ References: Review about this topic: - Anya Ellerbroek, The effects of ketogenic diets on the gut microbiome, JEN, 2018 Paper: - Murphy et al., Influence of high-fat diet on gut microbiome: a driving force for chronic disease risk, Curr Opinion Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2015 - He et al., High-fat diet induces dysbiosis of gastric microbiome prior to gut microbiota in association with metabolic disorders in mice - Gallaher DD, Animal models in human nutrition research - Magnussion et al., Relationship between diet-related changes in the gut microbiome and cognitive flexibility, Neuroscience, 2015 - Olson et al., The Gut Microbiota Mediates the Anti-Seizure Effects of the Ketogenic Diet, Cell, 2018 - Ma et al., Ketogenic diet enhances neurovascular function with altered gut microbiome in young healthy mice, Scientific reports, 2018 - David et al., Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome, Nature, 2014 - Swidsinski et al., Reduced mass and diversity of the colonic microbiome in patients with multiple sclerosis and their improvement with ketogenic diet, Front Microbiol, 2017 - Xie et al., Ketogenic diet poses a significant effect on imbalanced gut microbiota in infants with refractory epilepsy, World J Gastroenterol, 2017 - Brinkworth GD., Noakes M., et al. Comparative effects of a very low carbohydrate, high fat and high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diets on bowel habits and feacal short chain fatty acids and bacterial populations. British J Nutri. 2009 - Astbury et al., High Fructose intake during pregnancy in rats influences the maternal microbiome and gut development in the offspring, Front Genet, 2018 - Townsend et al., Dietary sugar silences colonization factor for mammalian gut symbiont, PNAS, 2019 - Do et al., High-glucose or fructose diet causes changes of the gut microbiome and metabolic disorders in mice without body weight change, Nutrients, 2018 - Biesiekierski et al., Gluten Causes Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Subjects Without Celiac Disease: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011 - Marlow et al., Evolutionary Anthropology, 2005
Views: 192 A Great Gut Feeling
Dr. Thomas Greiner explains that the gut microbiota is influenced by your genes, who you're born from and you diet. However the gut microbiota is different between obese and lean patients. In the future studies may discover a right mixture of the bacteria and prevent obesity.
Views: 1364 Nestlé Nutrition Institute
Gut reactions: host microbiome interactions in the intestine in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, March 14, 2018, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:00:44 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The gastrointestinal tract is home to a large number and vast array of bacteria that play an important role in nutrition, immune-system development, and host defense. In inflammatory bowel disease there is a breakdown in this mutualistic relationship resulting in aberrant inflammatory responses to intestinal bacteria. Studies in model systems indicate that intestinal homeostasis is an active process involving a delicate balance between effector and immune suppressive pathways. For her presentation, Dr. Powrie will discuss bacterial pathways that promote intestinal homeostasis and host defense, and how these may be harnessed therapeutically. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2017-2018/ Author: Fiona Powrie, D. Phil., Professor; Director, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23754
Views: 1892 nihvcast
Gut microbiome increasingly are being linked to a range of human maladies, including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and even cancer. Attempts to manipulate the gut with food rich in healthy bacteria, such as yogurt or kombucha, are increasingly in vogue, along with commercial probiotics promising to improve buyers’ chances against illness. Changing the gut microbiome to beat illness really does hold great potential, said Vanderbilt University biologist Seth Bordenstein, but first scientists must answer what constitutes a healthy gut microbiome and in whom. By studying data on nearly 1,700 Americans of varying genders, ages, weights and ethnicities, they learned that gut microbiome differences among ethnicities are the most consistent factor. That discovery holds promise in the burgeoning field of individualized medicine, because it is far easier to change a person’s microbiome than their genes – the other major markers for disease. In addition, many chronic diseases disproportionately affect ethnic minorities, with underlying causes of that difference unexplained. Perhaps some answers lie in the gut microbiome. “Human genomes are 99.9 percent the same between any two people, so what we’re really interested in is what explains the marked variations in gut microbiomes between people,” said Bordenstein, associate professor of biological sciences. “What are the rules, and can we manipulate that microbiome in order to improve health and medicine in the long run? If you look at common factors associated with gut microbiome differences, such as gender, weight or age, you find many inconsistencies in the types of gut bacteria present. But when we compare differences by patients’ self-declared ethnicities, we find stable and consistent features of bacteria present in the gut.” The work was done in collaboration with a team at the University of Minnesota, and the results, outlined in a paper titled “Gut Microbiota Diversity across Ethnicities in the United States,” appears today in the journal PLOS Biology. The team discovered 12 particular types of bacteria that regularly vary in abundance by ethnicity. Because ethnicity captures many factors, ranging from diet to genetics, it’s difficult to say why this is, said Andrew Brooks, the doctoral student who analyzed data provided by the American Gut Project and Human Microbiome Project. But it’s a baseline for understanding healthy microbiome differences among individuals. Bordenstein is director of the Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative, a collaboration among five Vanderbilt schools and colleges to advance microbial discoveries and, ultimately, get them into the hands of doctors for precision and preventative medicine. “You may buy probiotics over the counter at a drugstore, but those are unlikely to affect your microbiome in a substantial way,” Bordenstein said. “They often are at too low a dose, and they may not even be viable bacteria. Moreover, one size may not fit all. But with more of this kind of research, we can hone in on the relevant differences and doses of bacteria that may reverse illness or prevent it from developing in the first place.” The work published today was supported by National Institutes of Health training grants 4T32GM08017810, 5T32GM08017809 and 5T32GM0817808; the Vanderbilt Office of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion; the Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative funded by the Trans-Institutional Programs; and an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship. Follow Vanderbilt on Twitter: https://twitter.com/vanderbiltu, on Instagram: http://instagram.com/vanderbiltu and on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/vanderbilt. See all Vanderbilt social media at http://social.vanderbilt.edu.
Views: 791 Vanderbilt University
Gut bacteria have an immense impact on our weight and body composition. But, despite their importance, we keep starving them out by eating highly processed food, and killing them with overuse of antibiotics. Visit Bites of Reason on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bitesofreason Twitter: https://twitter.com/BitesOfReason ____________________ Created by Krunoslav Vinicki Research / Writing / Editing/Animation Lea Kralj Jager (http://smallfox.net/) Art Danko Bundalo (Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/dbundalo) Narration / Script / Sound ____________________ References: 1. Gill H.S., Guarner, F. (2004). Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 80:516-526. http://pmj.bmj.com/content/80/947/516 2. Fujimura, K. E. et al., “Role of the gut microbiota in defining human health,” Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 8, no. 4 (April 2010): 435–54, http://pmid.us/20377338. 3. Turnbaugh, P. J., Hamady, M., Yatsunenko, T., Cantarel, B. L., Duncan, A., Ley, R. E., Gordon, J. I. (2009). A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature, 457(7228), 480–484. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043404 4. Blustein, J., Attina, T., Liu, M., Ryan, M., Cox, L. M., Blaser, M. J., Trasande, L. (2013). Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years. International Journal of Obesity, 37, 900–906. http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v37/n7/abs/ijo201349a.html 5. Hyde, M.J., Modi, N. (2012). The long-term effects of birth by caesarean section: the case for a randomised controlled trial. Early Human Development, 88(12), 943-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036493 6. Trasande, L., Blustein, J., Liu, M., Corwin, E., Cox, L., & Blaser, M. (2013). Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass. International Journal of Obesity, 37(1), 16–23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22907693 7. Vanessa K. Ridaura, V. K. et al. (2013), Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science, 341 (6150). http://science.sciencemag.org/content/341/6150/1241214.article-info 8. OECD, Obesity and the Economics of Prevention: Fit not Fat - Korea Key Facts http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/obesityandtheeconomicsofpreventionfitnotfat-koreakeyfacts.htm 9. Kim, E. K., An, S.Y., Lee, M. S., Kim, T. H., Lee, H. K., Hwang, W. S., Choe, S. J., Kim, T. Y., Han, S. J., Kim, H. J., Kim, D. J., Lee, K.W. (2011). Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients. Nutrition Research, 31(6), 436-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21745625
Views: 4164 Bites of Reason
Intermittent fasting has many health benefits. However, the impact of not eating for a certain time on our microbiome is basically unknown. Do we starve the good bacteria? Do we starve the bad bacteria? Or how is our microbiome reacting at all? The research on this topic is summarized in this video. Enjoy! References: - Zarrinpar et al., Diet and Feeding Pattern Affect the Diurnal Dynamics of the Gut Microbiome, Cell metabolism, 2014 - Li et al., Intermittent Fasting Promotes White Adipose Browning and Decreases Obesity by Shaping the Gut Microbiota, Cell metabolism, 2017 - M. Godínez‐Victoria et al., Intermittent Fasting Promotes Bacterial Clearance and Intestinal IgA Production in Salmonella typhimurium‐Infected Mice, Scandinavian journal of immunology, 2014 - Lara-Padilla et al., Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: A mouse model, Journal of Neuroimmunology, 2015
Views: 841 A Great Gut Feeling
Learn how to isolate microbial DNA that accurately reflects the diverse microbes in the community sampled. This video will provide an outline of stool microbial DNA isolation, plus some tips and tricks. In addition to stool, the PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification Kit can be used to isolate DNA from urine, saliva, swabs, transport media, microbial culture, and soil. The online manual describes the protocol in detail: https://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/manuals/MAN0014266_PureLinkMicrobiome_Stool_UG.pdf For more information on PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification Kit, visit: thermofisher.com/microbiome
Views: 9042 Thermo Fisher Scientific
Changing your diet to maintain healthy gut bacteria could help to protect you from nearly all age-related diseases, new research suggests.Imbalanced gut bacteria may to blame for many age-related diseases, according to the new study from University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.The researchers found that the poorly balanced gut bacteria in older mice could induce ‘inflammaging’ in younger mice when it was transplanted to them.Inflammaging is a chronic inflammation condition associated with aging, which is linked to most serious age-related health conditions, like stroke, dementia and cardiovascular disease.Scientists know that elderly people tend to have different gut bacteria profiles from younger people. This new research suggests that this change in balance is linked to inflammaging, which is in turn related to most late-onset diseases and disorders.In recent years, we’ve found out that the gut is at the heart of just about everything, with many calling our second brain.Inflammaging is a catch-all term for the tendency of elderly people to have generalized inflammation. It is thought to be related to evolved changes that the immune system undergoes as a person gets older.It isn’t clear whether aging causes inflammation or inflammation causes aging, but the two go hand-in-hand, and susceptibility to many diseases goes along with both of them.Since they knew that the bacterial microbiome also undergoes changes with age, the researchers, led by Dr Floris Fransen, wanted to test the relationship between the three factors.They took samples from older mice – whose gut bacteria composition, like humans’, changes with age – and introduced them to the bodies of younger mice. After the procedure, the younger mice developed chronic inflammation, like the inflammaging that would normally have struck them later in life.The scientists also transplanted gut bacteria from one group of younger mice to another group of mice of around the same ages to see if the immune response was just to the introduction of foreign bacteria.But only the mice with transplanted gut bacteria from older ones developed inflammaging.The differences in the responses suggested to the researchers that aging leads to an imbalance in gut bacteria, such that there are more ‘bad’ bacteria than good in the microbiome.The proliferation of the bad bacteria leaves the gut lining more permeable to toxins that can contaminate the bloodstream and lead to disorders like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, anxiety, autism and even cancer.The study suggests a causal relationship between aged gut bacteria and inflammaging in mice, and, though the same has not been proven in humans, the researchers report that a correlation has already been observed.Still, the findings are enough to determine that ‘strategies that alter the gut microbiota composition in the elderly,’ such as developing a good diet and taking probiotics and prebiotics, ‘reduce inflammaging and promote healthy aging,’ says Dr Fransen. AutoNews- Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-5040845/Study-links-gut-bacteria-age-related-disease.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
Views: 25 US Sciencetech
Download my free video course about gut bacteria and your metabolism here http://bellyfateffect.com/
Views: 5730 Mike Mutzel, MS
http://www.oursynergyfamily.com/microbiomejudy/ To contact Judy Feldhausen for a free 30 minute consultation, please click on the above link. http://www.oursynergyfamily.com/microbiomedan/ To contact Dan Hammer for a free 30 minute consultation, please click on the above link. We have 3 key questions regarding weight loss. Have you struggled with your weight? Have you tried numerous diets where you've lost weight, but then ended up regaining those pounds and more? Have you given up? If you answered “Yes” to any of these questions, then the answer resides in the makeup of your gut microbiome. While an unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and perhaps your genetic makeup can contribute to your battle of the bulge, more and more research is showing that this is not a human genetic issue but rather a microbiome issue. Many times, the foods you crave, have very little to do with want you want. Rather it's your microbiome that's influencing your food choices. How to we know this to be true? Well, the most famous study in this area is the one done on identical human twins. Each twin has the same genetic makeup. However one twin was overweight and the other twin was lean. The researchers then took their human microbiome and injected it into the gut flora of mice so that the microbiome of the mice took on the nature of the human twin. Each recipient mice was given the same diet and daily activities. The results were that the mice with the microbiome from the lean human twin stayed lean. And, the mice with the mircobiome from the overweight human twin gained weight and stored fat. For the overweight twins, their microbial community was dominated by Firmicutes. Whereas, the microbial community of the lean twins were dominated by Bacteroidetes. Unfortunately, there are several common triggers that increase firmicutes over bacterioidetes: Trigger 1 – High intake of omega-6 fatty acids from vegetable oils. Most processed foods use some form of vegetable oil for shelf stability. The problem is these types of omega-6 oils trigger inflammation, which favors the Firmicutes. Trigger 2 – Animal protein creates less diversity in the microbial community, which then allows the Firmicutes to dominate. Trigger 3 – Sugar and processed carbohydrates, like modern-day wheat, are fuel for Firmicutes, which again allows them to dominate your abdominal microbiome. Trigger 4 – Stress triggers the releases of adrenal hormones like cortisol and adrenaline, which lower the Bacterioidetes in your abdominal cavity. To help you started on the right path, Judy and I would like to offer you a 4 step program. Step #1 – Eliminate omega-6 vegetable oils from your diet. Ones like Soybean Oil Canola Oil Vegetable Oil While the food industry, and our government, have tried to convince us that these omega-6 vegetable oils are safe and heart-healthy, they are not. These oils are inflammatory, and help create an environment that allow Firmicutes to flourish, which then creates toxins that your body has to address. Step #2 – Replace the omega-6 vegetable oils with omega 3 healthy fats like Coconut Oil Avocados Grass-fed Butter Fish Rich in Omega 3s Grass-fed Beef Extra-virgin Olive Oil When used in weight management studies, these healthy, anti-inflammatory omega 3 fats create an environment where healthy gut flora can dominate, which lowers inflammation levels, produces significantly less toxins, and increases the probability of weight loss. Step #3 – Eliminate Wheat from your diet. Why are we targeting wheat. Because modern-day wheat has been genetically engineered so that it now has a higher glycemic index that table sugar. It's fuel for firmicutes and a toxin producer. Step #4 – Limit Your Sugar Intake Most of the foods you eat come packaged. With a section on the label for Nutrition Facts. Find it and locate the line that says “Total Carbohydrate” Under this you will see a line that says “Total Sugars” This is the line that you want to pay attention to. Here's what you need to remember: 1 teaspoon of sugar is equal to 4 grams. If you divided the number of grams of sugar by 4 you will determine the number of teaspoons of sugar per serving. Ideally you only want to consume foods that are less than 1 teaspoon or 4 grams of sugar per serving. If you have any questions about this material, then please either email me at [email protected] or call me directly at 630-936-8079. Or you can email Judy at [email protected] or call her directly at 630-289-2750.
Views: 217 Daniel Hammer
DAY 2 of the ACSM's 64th Annual Science Meeting. I attended lots of AWESOME lectures/presentations and took some great notes. I learned lots and LOVED the cutting-edge content and information on the next frontier of fat-loss "The Gut Microbiome." I also learned some great information on blood sugar control and how it's an interrelation between muscle and liver metabolic function. The poster hall was so AWESOME!!! Loved doing the interviews with the consenting researchers. So much great content and information. Below will include the relevant studies pertaining to the presentations in this video. Some of the studies were cited in the presentations while some others were studies I cited on my own in support and elaboration of the content and research being revealed at this conference. Also, time stamp timeline is below also for your added convenience of navigation. 0:00 It's "Big" folks! I told you it was BIG! 0:26 Early morning workout vlog 1:50 Highlights of workout with voiceover 4:47 Whole foods fat-burning breakfast! 5:39 The effects of maternal nutrition and exercise on offspring metabolic health 5:53 Insulin resistance and exercise defects in youth with diabetes 6:06 Adding a nutritional lifestyle intervention to exercise alone for glucose homeostasis, fitness and body composition in pre-diabetic individuals 6:17 Targeting the gut microbiome to reduce diabetes risk 6:39 Asking the Experts! My Questions 9:45 Interviews in poster hall 9:50 1st Interview: The effect of a HIIT and resistance exercise program on body composition in obese females 13:31 2nd Interview: Reliability and validity of swimming pool protocol to measure maximal aerobic power of healthy adults 17:13 Graph illustrating inverse correlation between swim time and VO2 max 17:22 Is exercise really medicine? 17:34 The importance of fitness as a clinical vital sign Study References: Renal Function Is Associated With Peak Exercise Capacity in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes- http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/38/1/126.full.pdf Metabolic and Microbial Modulation of the Large Intestine Ecosystem by Non-Absorbed Diet Phenolic Compounds: A Review- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26393570 Akkermansia muciniphila and its role in regulating host functions- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875998 Anti-obesity Effect of Capsaicin in Mice Fed with High-Fat Diet Is Associated with an Increase in Population of the Gut Bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28280490 Navy Bean Supplementation in Obesity Increases Akkermansia muciniphilaAbundance and Attenuates Obesity Related Impairments in Gut Barrier Function- http://www.fasebj.org/content/30/1_Supplement/421.2.short Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100928 Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563823 Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507129 The Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acid Related Metabolomic Signature and Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27642608 The metabolic signature associated with the Western dietary pattern: a cross-sectional study- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24330454 The Effect Of A Hiit And Resistance Exercise Program On Body Composition In Obese Females- http://www.abstractsonline.com/pp8/#!/4196/presentation/6328 Improved insulin action following short-term exercise training: role of energy and carbohydrate balance- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16081626 Simvastatin impairs exercise training adaptations- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583255 Importance of Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Clinical Practice: A Case for Fitness as a Clinical Vital Sign: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27881567 A self-paced step test to predict aerobic fitness in older adults in the primary care clinic- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11380757
Views: 257 Ivan B
WORK 1-ON-1 W/ MICHAEL SANDLER! BOOK A FREE SESSION: http://www.inspirenationshow.com/coaching WEBSITE: http://www.InspireNationShow.com SUBSCRIBE! http://www.tinyurl.com/youtubeinspire SUBSCRIBE TO OUR PODCAST! --iTunes: http://www.tinyurl.com/InspireNation --Google Play Music: https://play.google.com/music/listen?u=0#/ps/I4xraa6yeyhj2giwfjbuptkdzta DONATE: https://www.patreon.com/inspirenation LET'S CONNECT! Inspire Nation --Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/InspireNationShow --Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/inspire7billion --Google+: https://plus.google.com/+Inspirenationshow Michael Sandler --Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/runswithspirit SHOW INTRODUCTION: If you’ve ever struggled with disease, illness, an auto-immune disorder or allergy, then do we have the super-organism show for you! Today I’ll be talking with Rodney Dietert, professor of immunotoxicology at Cornell University, and author of Strategies for Protecting Your Child’s Immune System and Immunotoxicity, Immune Dysfunction and Chronic Disease, and his latest book, which I couldn’t put down,The Human Superorganism: How the Microbiome Is Revolutionizing the Pursuit of a Healthy Life. And that’s just what we’ll be talking about today, what’s our microbiome and how it’s revolutionizing the pursuit of a healthy life. That plus we’ll talk about giant-pouched rats, Cliff the dog, the power of dark chocolate, why germ free mice are antisocial, the importance of a giraffe’s neck, and what a dog’s obsession with doves has to do with anything! MORE ON DR. RODNEY DIETERT: Dr. Rodney Dietert is Professor of Immunotoxicology at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. He received his PhD in immunogenetics from the University of Texas at Austin. Among his authored and edited academic books are Strategies for Protecting Your Child’s Immune System and Immunotoxicity, Immune Dysfunction, and Chronic Disease. Rodney previously directed Cornell’s Graduate Field of Immunology, the Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors, and the Institute for Comparative and Environmental Toxicology, and he has served as a Senior Fellow in the Cornell Center for the Environment. Recently, he appeared in the 2014 award-winning documentary Microbirth. In 2015 he received the James G. Wilson Publication Award from the Teratology Society for the best paper of the year on the microbiome. KEY TOPICS: • How he went from a dream to this book. • How he ended up in the documentary microbirth • What happened to him at a conference in Germany • How he went from 30 years on antibiotics to years antibiotic free by addressing his gut and microbiome • Why our microbes in our body have much control or influence over our biology than we think. • What is a superorganism? • What a fight on infectious diseases at now isn’t the problem • What’s the problem with the ecology and diversity in our body • What’s a non-communicable disease (NCD) • Why does one non-communicable disease lead to the next disease? • What NSAIDS including aspirin can harm our microbiome • What it means to be deemed ‘safe’ • How much of us in made up of microbiomes? • What’s the possible harm of GMO’s • Why is the immune system really a junkyard dog • Are infants born with a complete immune system? • What do mom’s and parents need to know for pregnant women, pregnancy, and unborn children • How do we prevent children from getting non-communicable diseases • What do cravings have to do with your microbiome? • What’s the new field of psychobiotics • What’s the history behind caesarian section and what’s been happening with C-sections? • What’s the obesity tree? • How do we begin to heal our microbiome • What it means to get a profile for your microbiome • What’s the importance of fermented foods • How do we test our microbiome • What are prebiotics? • What’s happening with sugar-free food and artificial sweeteners? • Big foods to watch for: 1. BPA 2. Emulsifiers • What’s the importance and danger of hand sanitizers • Rodney Dietert’s rules for food shopping • How important are organics • How can meditation help calm our microbiome • What’s a ‘gut instinct’ • What does spirituality, mindfulness and contemplative tools have to do with our microbiome • How can swing dancing help your microbiome? • Why exercise is so powerful for our microbiome? • Why you don’t want to exercise too hard for your microbiome? • Why stress-exercise is so bad for the microbiome • How Mindful Running can help your microbiome • Why dancing puts you in a state of coherence (think Heart Math and Howard Martin) • Why it’s so important to get out of the fight or flight state • Where can people go to find ‘the Human Superorganism’ • What people can learn about Cliff the microbiome searching dog • Guided meditation to help with any problem or issue
Views: 2920 Inspire Nation
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Views: 961 National Human Genome Research Institute
Other Recent Videos ▶▶ https://t.co/IZr5DFBX8f LIKE ▶ SHARE ▶▶ The primary consequences of the biggest examination to have at any point explored the human microbiome are in. They have critical ramifications for our dietary practices, protection from anti-toxins, and our psychological wellness. gut microbiome diversity,what is microbiome diversity,microbiome diversity definition,microbiome diversity and health,microbiota and weight loss,gut bacteria and weight control,gut bacteria and obesity,microbiome weight gain Subscribe Now ▶▶ https://t.co/QNAig93nS4 ==================================== I Am Youtube Uploader & Enjoy Your Watching My Channel *disclaimer : this video may contains part of other video that is uploaded to Youtube therefore it is courtesy of Youtube and as a verified Youtube partner, i am allowed to use part of other video content courtesy of Youtube under derivative, educational and parody work. To learn more about this go to https://www.youtube.com/yt/copyright/
Views: 11 Break Your Limits
Presenter: Lisa Sardinia, PhD, JD Most of the tens of trillions of cells that make up the human body are actually microbes. The gut microbiota make vitamins for us, help us digest food, battle disease-causing microbes, and may influence our behavior.
Views: 1697 Oregon Public Health Division
Listen; The full Episode with show notes & references here, http://corebrainjournal.com/ Autism & Fecal Microbiota Transfer Therapy - MTT - FMT - Update James B. Adams, Ph.D., is a President’s Professor at Arizona State University, where he directs the autism/Asperger’s research program, though he originally taught chemical and materials engineering there. Dr. Adams also holds a post at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine. He is also the president of the Autism Society of Greater Phoenix, the co-chair of the Autism Research Institute’s scientific advisory committee, and has received the Autism Service Award from the Greater Phoenix chapter of the Autism Society of America. This CBJ/214 reveals a most interesting development in Autism Treatment directly related to gut microbiota and his research with FMTT Fecal Microbiota Transfer Therapy. Must listen! Photo by Artak Petrosyan on Unsplash Reference Details For MTT: Article Abstract Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study. Publication Microbiome - Jan. 23, 2017 Author(s) Dae-Wook Kang, James B. Adams, Ann C. Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick5,15, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L. Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J. Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B. Sullivan, J. Gregory Caporaso and Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 1013 bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD. The gut microbiome-ASD connection has been tested in a mouse model of ASD, where the microbiome was mechanistically linked to abnormal metabolites and behavior. Similarly, a study of children with ASD found that oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment improved GI and ASD symptoms, albeit temporarily. Here, a small open-label clinical trial evaluated the impact of Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) on gut microbiota composition and GI and ASD symptoms of 18 ASD-diagnosed children. Results MTT involved a 2-week antibiotic treatment, a bowel cleanse, and then an extended fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) using a high initial dose followed by daily and lower maintenance doses for 7–8 weeks. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale revealed an approximately 80% reduction of GI symptoms at the end of treatment, including significant improvements in symptoms of constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal pain. Conclusions This exploratory, extended-duration treatment protocol thus appears to be a promising approach to alter the gut microbiome and virome and improve GI and behavioral symptoms of ASD. Improvements in GI symptoms, ASD symptoms, and the microbiome all persisted for at least 8 weeks after treatment ended, suggesting a long-term impact. Similarly, clinical assessments showed that behavioral ASD symptoms improved significantly and remained improved 8 weeks after treatment ended. Bacterial and phagedeep sequencing analyses revealed successful partial engraftment of donor microbiota and beneficial changes in the gut environment. Specifically, overall bacterial diversity and the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Desulfovibrio among other taxa increased following MTT, and these changes persisted after treatment stopped (followed for 8 weeks). ----------- References Full text of this article: https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7 Download PDF of this article here. Video from OpenBiome on Fecal Microbiota Transplant - FMT
Views: 79 Dr Charles Parker
LEARN MORE ABOUT INFLAMMATION'S IMPACT ON THE MICROBIOME, WITH BIOHM HEALTH'S CEO AFIF GHANNOUM AND DR. NATHAN KLINGENSMITH OF THE EMORY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. .20 Introducing Dr. Nathan Klingensmith of the Emory School of Medicine 1:25 Dr. Nathan Klingensmith’s talks about his educational background and how he became interested in the microbiome. 2:11 The microbiome of patients in critical care change. 4:50 Anything a person does or experiences impacts their microbiome. 5:45 Sepsis is systemic inflammation. 7:12 Your microbiome is impacted by a variety of factors. 7:40 Your microbiome influences your immune system. 9:20 Inflammation has an impact on your gut's microbiome. 10:00 Alcohol's impact on the microbiome in a mice model. 13:15 When there is a big impact on your gut microbiome it appears your health will suffer. 15:00 The importance of a diverse gut microbiome. Some the of the studies mentioned in the interview can be found below: Klingensmith, Nathan J., and Craig M. Coopersmith. “The Gut as the Motor of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Critical Illness.” Critical care clinics 32.2 (2016): 203–212. PMC. Web. 26 June 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808565/ Yoseph, B. P., et al. "Mechanisms of Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Sepsis." Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 46.1 (2016): 52. http://journals.lww.com/shockjournal/fulltext/2016/07000/Mechanisms_of_Intestinal_Barrier_Dysfunction_in.8.aspx Connect with BIOHM Health AT: https://www.biohmhealth.com https://www.facebook.com/biohmhealth/ https://www.instagram.com/biohmhealth/ ABOUT BIOHM Health: Dr. Ghannoum is the founder of BIOHM Health. Dr. Ghannoum has studied fungus for over forty years, and is widely considered the leading expert on medically important fungus. He lectures at many institutions, such as the National Institutes of Health, on the microbiome and his breakthrough research in the probiotic space. He is also the scientist who named the mycobiome, our body’s native fungal community. He coined the term in 2010, after identifying 101 different fungal species that live in the mouth. After making the breakthrough discovery that bad bacteria and bad fungus work together to create digestive plaque (a discovery covered globally by outlets such as CBS News, Scientific American, Forbes and USA Today), Dr. Ghannoum realized that probiotics currently available had not been engineered to specifically address the role fungus plays in digestive health. As a result – he created BIOHM: The first complete probiotic that addresses the gut’s total microbiome of both bacteria and fungus. During his career, he has published several books on fungus and over 350 peer-reviewed scientific papers. His work has been cited almost 18,000 times by other scientists. He has received over $25 million in funding for his research from the National Institutes of Health and has raised over $20 million in venture capital for several successful biotechnology companies. Dr. Ghannoum has also conducted many pre-clinical studies behind some of the largest anti-fungal drugs in the world and continues to guide some of the largest global pharmaceutical companies as they develop drugs related to treating fungal disease.
Views: 443 BIOHM Health
Intelligent Ageing Expert Dr. Sanjay Sachdeva explains the relation between aging, gut, and microbiome. Our gut is our most essential physiological association with the microbiome which has its impact on health and ageing. For more details, visit our website: http://intelligentageing.in/
Views: 133 Intelligent Ageing
Please Subscribe for 3-4x Videos Per Week! http://www.ThomasDeLauer.com Gut Bacteria and Mental Health: How Inflammation Affects Us: Thomas DeLauer Microbiomes are communities of microorganisms that are a combination of both beneficial and potentially harmful bacteria Lifestyle factors such as exercise and managing stress appear to dramatically affect the diversity and quantity of healthy microbiome in the intestines The human gut harbors over 100 trillion microorganisms - approximately 10 times the number of cells in the human body Microbes begin residing within human intestines shortly after birth. These microbiomes are vital to the development of the immune system and various neural functions – known as the gut-brain axis *The gut-brain axis is the biochemical signaling that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system* An increasing body of research results confirms the importance of the "gut-brain axis" for neurology and indicates that the triggers for a number of neurological diseases, specifically anxiety and depression, may be located in the digestive tract How the Gut Interacts with the Brain The gut is connected to the brain via the vagus nerve, the enteric nervous system, and the gut-brain axis. Vagus Nerve The vagus nerve extends from the brainstem down into the neck, thorax, and abdomen. The nerve exits the brainstem through rootlets in the medulla that are caudal to the rootlets for the ninth cranial nerve The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all organs except adrenal glands, all the way from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. It helps regulate heart rate, speech, sweating, and various gastrointestinal functions. Enteric Nervous System The enteric nervous system connects with the central nervous system. It contains 200-600 million neurons Local and centrally projecting sensory neurons in the gut wall monitor mechanical conditions in the gut wall. Local circuit neurons, on the other hand, integrate this information. This enables motor neurons to influence the activity of the smooth muscles in the gut wall and glandular secretions such as digestive enzymes, mucus, stomach acid, and bile The enteric nervous system has been referred to as a “second brain” because of its ability to operate autonomously and communicate with the central nervous system through the parasympathetic (i.e., via the vagus nerve) and sympathetic nervous systems. Gut-Brain Axis Finally, the gut-brain axis consists of bidirectional communication between the central and the enteric nervous system, linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. There is strong evidence from animal studies that gut microorganisms can activate the vagus nerve and play a critical role in mediating effects on the brain and behavior. (1) Connections between the gut and the brain/Anxiety and Depression Recent studies on laboratory animals that grow up without any microorganisms (germ-free) show that microorganisms in the gut are capable of influencing mood Maintaining a Healthy Gut No one knows the exact ingredients for a healthy microbial gut; however, having a diet rich in probiotic foods to maintain a healthy gut seems like the way to go Probiotics seemingly boost mood in two important ways: They generate a particular neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and also enhance the brain receptors for GABA as well. GABA is calming amino acid, known to calm areas of the brain that are over active in anxiety and panic and in some forms of anxious depression. References 1) Surprising Link Between Depression, Anxiety, and Gut Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/link-between-depression-anxiety-and-gut-health/ 2) Link Found Between Gut Bacteria And Depression | IFLScience. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/link-found-between-gut-bacteria-and-depression/ 3) How Your Gut Affects Your Mood | FiveThirtyEight. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/gut-week-gut-brain-axis-can-fixing-my-stomach-fix-me/ 4) The Gut Microbiome, Anxiety and Depression. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/inner-source/201411/the-gut-microbiome-anxiety-and-depression-6-steps-take
Views: 76535 Thomas DeLauer
Conférence de Jean-François BACH intitulée Causalité et médecine 00:00:00 Introduction 00:13:27 Idd suceptibility loci for autoimmune diabetes in Non Obese Diabetic mice 00:13:59 IDDM suceptibility loci for human autoimmune diabetes 00:15:37 Gut microbiome and development of autoimmunity : the case of type 1 diabetes 00:16:11 Changes in diversity of Human Infant Gut Microbiome does not precede Type 1 Diabetes 00:18:46 Incidence of prototype infectious diseases and immune disorders over 4 decades 00:19:26 Effect of infections on diabetes incidence in female NOD mice Decontamination (isolation) 00:20:15 Prevention of iddm in nod mice by infectious agents © Académie des sciences - Tous droits réservés
Views: 109 Académie des sciences
https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/antibody-diversity/ Dr. Ploegh describes how antibody diversity lets us resist the multitude of infectious agents we encounter every day. He also explains how camelid antibody fragments are changing medicine. Talk Overview: How does our immune system protect us against all of the infectious agents and foreign substances we encounter? Much of the answer lies in antibody diversity. In his first talk, Dr. Hidde Ploegh explains how B cells shuffle their genetic material such that regions of the immunoglobulin protein are rearranged. This generates the antibody diversity needed to recognize an almost infinite number of antigens. Interactions of B cells with T helper cells results in the formation of structurally distinct classes of immunoglobulins, further increasing antibody diversity. T killer cells are primed to attack infectious agents when immunoglobulins on their surface recognize antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Ploegh explains that by subverting the MHC pathway, viruses and cancer cells can evade the immune system. In part two, Ploegh describes how his lab takes advantage of the unique properties of antibodies from the Camelidae family (alpacas, llamas, camels, etc). In addition to traditional antibodies, these animals naturally make small, heavy-chain only antibodies (nanobodies). These molecules can be isolated, amplified in bacteria, and engineered for new applications. As well as using nanobodies to target viruses and inflammasomes, Ploegh explains how his lab uses labelled nanobodies for non-invasive, live imaging of cancer tumors in mice. These technologies have exciting implications in basic and biomedical studies. Speaker Biography: Dr. Hidde Ploegh is an immunologist at Boston Children’s Hospital. His love for immunology began when he was an undergraduate at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. As a student, he wrote a letter to renowned immunologist Jon van Rood but never heard back. However, as an undergraduate researcher, he had an opportunity to work with Dr. Jack Strominger at Harvard University for 6 months. The experience was so great that after earning a BS and Masters in Biology and Chemistry from the University of Groningen, he returned to Strominger’s lab for his graduate studies. Ironically, his thesis committee chair ended up being Jon van Rood. Ploegh ultimately received his PhD from Leiden University in the Netherlands. Following graduate school, Ploegh was highly sought after by several institutions. Fresh from his PhD, Ploegh was first offered a position as a junior group leader in immunology at the University of Cologne, Germany in 1980. Since then, he has worked at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School and most recently, the Whitehead Institute. His accolades, in addition to prestigious awards, include induction into the European Molecular Biology Organization (1986), the American Academy of Arts and Science (2002) and the National Academy of Sciences (2012). He has contributed to over 500 papers. Learn more about his lab and research here: http://www.childrenshospital.org/research-and-innovation/research/programs/program-in-cellular-and-molecular-medicine/faculty-and-research/hidde-ploegh/lab-highlights
Views: 3966 iBiology
Functional dynamics of the gut microbiome in health and disease Air date: Tuesday, October 27, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:00:59 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Dr. Fraser's current research interests are focused oncharacterization of the structure and function of the microbial communitiesthat are found in the human environment, as part of the NIH-funded HumanMicrobiome Project, including projects specifically focused on obesity,metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, the interactions between thehuman immune response and the gut microbiome, and the impact of probiotics onthe structure and function of the intestinal microbiome. About the annual Rolla E. Dyer lecture: The annual Rolla E. Dyer Lecture features aninternationally renowned researcher who has contributed substantially to themedical as well as the biological knowledge of infectious diseases. Establishedin 1950, the lecture series honors former NIH director Dr. Dyer, who was anoted authority on infectious diseases. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Claire Fraser, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology; Director, Institute for Genome Sciences; University of Maryland School of Medicine Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19272
Views: 3029 nihvcast
Listen to the Podcast in iTunes: http://highintensityhealth.com/itunes Show Notes-- 4:06 Healing from Surgery and Gut Flora: When you are a surgical patient, you have your procedure, you go home, and you start eating your regular food. You have generally had one shot of antibiotics, which assaults your gut microbiome, but you can rebuild your gut flora quickly at home by resuming your regular diet. There are about 80,000 elective operations done every day and most of us heal quickly at home. 5:00 Longer Hospital Recovery and Gut Biodiversity: Sometimes we have a prolonged recovery, for example after, a car accident, a liver transplant, or burn injuries. In the intensive care unit, even when there is no identified source of infection, doctors will put 80% of us on antibiotics unnecessarily. 6:37 The Consequences of Unnecessary Antibiotics in Prolonged Recovery: It is called ecological collapse of the normal gut biome. Your normal health-promoting microbiome is replaced with a pathobiome. Harmful, pathogenic, bacteria become predominant in your gut. This dysbiosis can directly impair the immune system and directly and adversely affect the outcome. Instead of being better in a day or two, it may take you 2 weeks to recover. 7:23 The Impact of a Pathogenic Gut Microbiome on the Immune System: There is now evidence that your normal gut bacteria drive your entire body’s immune response. Studies in animals show that even a sterile incision distant from the gut heals much worse if you destroy the gut microbiome. 8:25 Overuse of Antibiotics: Dr. Alverdy is glad that we have antibiotics. They save countless lives. Clearly, we are overusing them. Now that we have the molecular tools to understand it and as we have the science to back it up, we can use this science to change the clinical course of treatment. Perhaps, we could narrow the antibiotic’s spectrum or use alternative approaches like delivering the antibiotic to the wound site rather than systemically. 10:36 Chemically Defined Diets Impact Upon Gut Biodiversity: With food, the whole is greater and more powerful than the sum of its parts. Using chemicals that have many of the components of food does not feed the microbiome and does not fully nourish the body. Using chemicals that have the components of the gut flora byproducts does not nourish the body either. Chemically defined diets are inadequate. They do not have the same effect on the microbiome, and thus the immune system, as real food. We cannot eat real food when we are very sick. Dr. Alverdy is hoping that through the sciences of metabolomics, proteomics, and microbial genetics, we will make discoveries that will allow us to better nourish our people and their gut microbiome. 14:15 Prophylactic Probiotics before Surgery: Probiotic supplements offer a few strains of bacteria for the gut. To re-faunate the gut, you would need a multitude of bacterial strains to create the diversity required to maintain your health. 17:25 The Leaky Gut and Endotoxin Relationship: In leaky gut, your gut lining has been compromised and toxins, released by your gut bacteria, leaks into your bloodstream in small amounts, triggering an immune response. Leaky gut is being linked in theory to diseases for which there is no identified infectious agent, like autism, MS, and fibromyalgia. It is unclear whether the endotoxin in the blood is a marker for the problem or it is driving the problem. In Dr. Alverdy’s opinion, it is more likely that the endotoxin is the result of the leaky gut rather than the cause. 18:58 Your Gut is REALLY Smart: Your GI tract is discriminating. It lets the good stuff in and keeps the bad stuff out. It constantly surveys what is in the gut, so it can be ready for anything at any time. It is a very molecularly complex process. Lymph nodes serve as checkpoints where intruders are identified and detoxified. The endotoxin that may seep through a permeable intestine would probably be mostly detoxified. 20:25 Microbial Shifts Post Surgery: In a recent study, gastric bypasses were performed on mice. Their stool microbiome dramatically changed. Pre-surgery stools and post-surgery stools were transplanted into over-weight mice. The overweight mice that received the post-surgery stool lost weight. They also had improved glucose tolerance, improved metabolic syndrome, and improved fatty liver. Gastric bypass, through alterations in the gut microbiome, appears to change energy efficiency and energy regulation. We are nowhere near a place where we can take a pill to implement these changes and lose weight. It could be that people who struggle with their weight all of their lives, have some sort of altered energy balance. They are eating more than
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The trillions of bacteria, fungi and viruses that live on the skin all over our bodies is part of the microbiome. JAX Assistant Professor Julia Oh studies the human microbiome for its potential to deliver treatments for infectious and other diseases. https://www.jax.org/news-and-insights/2016/october/what-is-the-skin-microbiome Healthspan vs. Lifespan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H44gbNotK8E What is the difference between genetics and genomics? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9aykwOpxns What are preprints? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIZ4KA7cvys DNA 101: The building blocks of the genome https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-u2c_k_l00 What is a mouse model? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc0GFLX7AvE Modeling human diversity - in mice! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TiZ4wG8wQBY What is the skin microbiome? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6ImOen5etU
Views: 3039 The Jackson Laboratory
Govindarajan Rajagopalan, Ph.D., Yogish C. Kudva, MBBS, and Joe Murray, M.D., discuss research showing that the intestinal microbiome plays a large role in the development of Type 1 diabetes. Now, researchers at Mayo Clinic have demonstrated that gluten in the diet may modify the intestinal microbiome, increasing incidences of Type 1 diabetes. These researchers demonstrated that mice fed a gluten-free diet had a dramatically reduced incidence of Type 1 diabetes. These mice were a non-obese diabetic mice, or mice that grow to develop Type 1 diabetes. The gluten-free diet worked to protect the mice against Type 1 diabetes. When the researchers added gluten back into the diets of mice it reversed the protective effect the gluten free diet had provided. There also was a measurable impact of the gluten on the bacterial flora of the mice that might be one way in which gluten could affect the risk for diabetes.
Views: 308 Mayo Clinic