What is HUMAN MICROBIOTA? What does HUMAN MICROBIOTA mean? HUMAN MICROBIOTA meaning - HUMAN MICROBIOTA definition - HUMAN MICROBIOTA explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Though micro-animals also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.
Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but more recent estimates have lowered that ratio to 3:1 or even to approximately the same number. Some microbiota that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans; others have a mutualistic relationship with their human hosts.:700 Conversely, some non-pathogenic microbiota can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine. Certain microbiota perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host; the role of most resident microorganisms is not well understood. Those that are expected to be present, and that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota.
The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it published its initial results.